Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Archaeology, College of Humanities, Sulaimani University

2 Department of History, College of Humanities, Sulaimani University


Garmian is a region of strategic, historical and cultural significance in ancient history. It is located in the southern Kurdistan Region and in the north of modern Iraq. Being located between the political powers of Southern Mesopotamia and the mountainous peoples of the north and east, many political conflicts and military clashes have taken place on its soil. It was also home of some piedmont peoples and political entities which have left their impression on its long history, such as Simurrum, Namri, Ḫarši Niqqum and others. Garmiyan was also part of the Mitanni Empire with its regional capital at Arrapḫa while Nuzi was one of its main urban centers. The Kassites too lived along the Sirwan/Diyala River and have played a major role in the events of the region, their presence is indicated by Kassite pottery shards and other artifacts discovered in several sites of the Garmiyan Region.
The current research focuses on the history of this important region in the second millennium BC, a period during which the great powers of Mitanni, Kassites, Assyrians, Elamites and others have bitterly contested for the control of Garmian for its strategic location and the trade routes passed through which connecting Mesopotamia, ancient Kurdistan Iran and beyond.