Document Type : Original Article


Chemistry Dept., University of Garmian, Kalar, Iraq


Sirwan River is regarded as a lifeline for Garmian Region. The prevailing climate in the areas that the river goes through is a semi-dry. Iran proceeded lately to establish water projects, dams and reservoirs along the river inside Iran without taking into account the Iraq`s shares. The TWP project consists of (13) dams with a capacity of (1.7) billion m3, and a number of diversion tunnels which are constructed on Sirwan River. Nousod tunnel is a part of TWP and one of the largest tunnels dedicated for water converting around the world. It was constructed to convert more than (70) m3/sec of water from TWP dams to outside of Sirwan River basin. The Iraqi Kurdistan Region is one of the hardest hit of those Iranian policies, specifically Garmian area that will suffer from major crises as a result of draining some of the headwaters of Sirwan River. Thus, the problem of water shortage will appear and negatively affect the agricultural sector. This will lead to decline agricultural areas that fed by the river. In addition, agricultural production will be reduced, and there will be difficulty to address the declining in the required amount of water in the study area.

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