جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌ : Original Article


Darbandikhan Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Darbandikhan, Al Sulaymaniah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq


The study was conducted in order to classify Levee's Soil of Serwan river and to know
the dominant soil units in the study area, as well as to determine the dominant pedogenic
processes in the study area. Four pedons were selected along Sirwan River and described
morphologically. Soil samples were taken from each soil horizon to determine some
physical and chemical properties. The results showed that all pedons are developed with
A-B-C horizon sequences. All pedons have a Mollic epipedons with Agrillic and Calcic
endopedons. The The increase of fine and total clay are due to the activity of Eluviation
and illuviation pedogenic processes and to some extent to the new formation of clay
minerals. According to the morphological, physical and chemical properties of the
studied pedons, soils were classified as Typic Argixerolls as they have Mollic surface
horizons with more than 50% base saturation for more than 175 cm depth. They have
Argillic and Calcic subsurface horizons. The results indicated that the dominant
pedogenic processes affecting soil development are eluviation, illuviation,
decalcification and calcification.

وشه‌ بنچینه‌ییه‌كان

 Ahmad, S. M. 2005. Natural map of Iraqi Kurdistan region.
 Al-Agidi, W.K.H. 1986. Pedology-soil survey and classification. Mosul Univ.
 Avery, B.W. and C.L. Bascomb. 1982. Soil survey laboratory methods.
Rothmaster experimental station, Harpenden, Herts. AL 52 JQ.
 Black, C. A. 1965. Methods of soil analysis. Soc. of Agronomy. No.9.Part 1 and
 Blake, G. R. 1965a. Bulk density. In: Black, C. A. (Ed.). Methods of soil
analysis. Part 1. Am. Soc. of Agron., Madison Wisconsin, No. 9. PP: 371-373.
 Blake, G. R. 1965b. Bulk density. In: Black, C. A. (Ed.). Methods of soil
analysis. Part 2. Am. Soc. of Agron., Madison Wisconsin, No. 9. PP: 374-390.
 Buringh, P. 1960. Soil and soil condition in Iraq. Ministry of Agriculture.
Baghdad, Iraq.
 Chapman, H.D. and P.E. Pratt. 1961. Methods of analysis for soil, plant and
waters. Univ. of California press California. U.S.A.
 Dixit, S.P. 1978. Measurement of the mobility of soil colloids.European J. Soil
Sci. 29:557 –566.
 Dunnington, H.V. 1958. Generation, migration, accumulation and dissipation of
oil in northern of Iraq. In. L.G. Weeks (ed). Habitat of Oil. Amer.Assoc.
Petroleum Geologist. PP: 1194-1251.
 Eswaran, H., and A.F. Al-Barzanji. 1974. Evidence for the neoformation of
attapulgitein some soils of Iraq. rans. 10th Int. Congr. Soil Sci., Nauk, Moscow.
 Eswaran, H. and C. Sys.1979. Argillic horizon formation in low activity clay
soils, formation and significance to classification. Pedologie. 29:175–190.
 FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) of U.N. 2000. Agricultural pest and
their control principles. Offset press, Erbile-Iraq.
 Galet, D. 1972. Dosage du calcaire actif. Methods du division technique.
Solaigue Nimes. France. PP: 37-38.
 Gregorich, E.G., L.W.Turchenek, M.R.Carter, and D.A.Angers. 2001. Soil and
Environmental Science Dictionary. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 577 pp .
 Hesse, P. R. 1972. A text book of soil chemical analysis. Chemical publ. Co. Inc.
New York-U.S.A.
 Jackson, M. L. 1956. Soil chemical analysis. Advanced course. Univ.
Dept. of Wisconsin, Collage of agri. Madison.
 Jackson, M.L. 1958. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
 Jackson, M. L. 1979. Soil chemical advanced course. 2nd ed-publ. by the
author, Madison, W.I. U.S.A.
 Kelley, W.P. 1948. Cation exchange in soil. Reinhold publishing crop.,
New York. U.S.A.
 Kharrufa, N. S. 1985. Simplified equation for evaportranspiration in arid regions.
Beitrage Zure Hydrology. No. 5. PP: 39-47.
 Kilmer, V.J. and L.T. Alexander. 1949. Methods of making mechanical analysis
of soils. Soil Sci. 68: 15-24.
 Mahmuod, I.J., and A.S. Muhaimeed. 2007. Characteristics, formation, and
classification of alluvial soils of Naft valley in Mandali area. Iraqi J. Soil Sci.
 McKeague, J. A. and R. J. St. Arnaud. 1969. Pedotranslocation:
eluviations–illuviation in soils during the Quaternary. Soil Sci. 107:428–434.
 Miller, B. J. 1983. Ultisols. In: L. P. Wilding, N. E. Smeck, and G. F. Hall,
editors, Pedogenesis and Soil Taxonomy II: The Soil Orders. Elsevier,
Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 283-323.Developments in Soil Science. Vol. 11
Part B.
 Michel, E., S. Majdalani, and L. Di-Pietro. 2010. How differential capillary
stresses promote particle mobilization in macroporous soils: A novel conceptual
model. Vadose Zone J. 9:307–316.
 Muhaimeed, A.S. Soil survey and classification. Mosul Univ. Press, Iraq.1994.
 Muhaimeed, A.S., A. Alfalihi, E. Alaini and A. Taha. 2014. Developing land
suitability maps for some crops in Abu-Ghraib usingremote sensing and GIS. J.
Remote Sensing and GIS. 2: 16-23.
 Muhaimeed, A.S. Morphology and natural formation of some soils in northern
Al-Jazera project. Iraqi J. Sci. 4:885-895. 1991.
 Muhaimeed, A.S., A.S. Al-Shikihi, S.K. Esa, and M.A. Jamal. Comparison of
some properties of some properties of soils on both sides of great Zabriver in
Aski-Kalk. Zanco. 4:75-88. 2000.
 Muhaimeed, A.S., and I.J. Mohammad.Characteristics, formation, and
classification of alluvial soils of Naft valley in Manadali area. Iraqi J. Soil Sci.
 Muhaimeed, A.S., and K.A. Saliem. 2001. Micromorphological features of
gypsiferoussoils and their effects on growth and penetration of plant roots. Iraqi
J. Soil Sci. 1:154–160.
 Muhaimeed, A.S., and Salaiman.Nature of formation and classification of
Vertisols in northern Iraq. Mesopotamian J. Agric. 22:121-134.1990.
 Muhaimeed, A. S.; S. N. Aziz and I. M. Amin. 2013. Genesis of Argilic and
Calcic horizons in some northern Iraqi soils. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and
Biological Science. Vol. 8. No. 1. PP: 29-34.
 Naqash, A. and A. Hambarsom. 1985. The geomorphology, structural geology
and Iraq geology. College of Science. Baghdad Univ. Iraq.
 Nelson, D. W. and L.E. Sommer. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic
matter. PP: 539-579. In A.L. Page (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. 2nd Ed. ASA
Monogr.. Amer. Soc. Agron. Vol. 9. No. 2. Madison. WI.
 Papanicolaou, E.P. 1976. Determination of cation exchange capacity of
calcareous soils and their percent base saturation. Soil Sc. P: 121.
 Phillips, J.D. 2007. Development of texture contrast soils by a combination of
bioturbation and translocation. Catena. 70:92–104.
 Piper, C. S. 1950 Soil and Plant Analysis. Interscience Publishers, Inc., New
 Porta, J., M.Lopez-Acevedo, and C.Roquero.1994.Edafologia. Madrid:
Editions Mundi-Prensa. 807 pp.
 Richards, L. A. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soil.
U.S.D.A. Handbook No. 60.
 Ryan, J.N., T.H. Illengasekare, M.I. Litaor, and R. Shannon. 1998. Particle and
plutonium mobilization in macroporous soils during rainfall simulations.
Environ. Sci. Technol. 32:476–482.
 Schaetzl, R.J. and S. Anderson. 2005. Soils: Genesis and geomorphology.
Cambridge, University Press, Cambridge.
 Sharma, P., M. Flury, and J. Zhou. 2008. Detachment of colloids from a solid
surface by a moving air–water interface. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 326:143–150.
 Soil Survey Staff. 1993. National soil survey handbook. Title 430-Vol.
(Washington, D.C.: USDA Natural Resources conservation service).
 Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil Taxonomy. A basic system of soil classification for
making and interpreting soil surveys. 2nded. The US government printing office,
Washington, DC.
 Soil Survey Staff. 2006. Keys to soil taxonomy. Hand book. 10th ed. Natural
Resources conservation service. Washington D.C.
 Soil Survey Staff. 2010. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 11th ed. United States
Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Washington
 Sprague, L.A., J.S. Herman, G.M. Hornberger, and A.L. Mills. 2000. Atrazine
adsorption and colloid-facilitated transport through the unsaturated zone. J.
Environ. Qual. 29:1632–1641.
 Thorp, J and Smith, G. D. 1949. Higher Categories of Soil Classifications: Order,
Suborder and Great Soil Groups. Soil Science, 67: 117-126. (Classical article on
the higher categories of the system of soil classification as used in the USA
during the mid-twentieth century).
 Vomocil, J. A. 1965. Porosity. In: Black, C. A. (Ed.). Methods of soil analysis.
Part 1. Am. Soc. of Agron., Madison Wisconsin, No. 9: PP: 315-318.
 Walkley, A. and I. A. Black. 1934. An Examination of Degtjareff Method for
Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposed Modification of the Chromic
Acid Titration Method. Soil Sci. No. 37. PP: 29-37.
 Yoseef, A.F. 1999. Devices and methods of soil and water analysis. Malic Sood
Univ. Sodia Arabic.
 Zhuang, J., J.F. McCarthy, J.S. Tyner, E. Perfect, and M. Flury. 2007. In-situ
colloid mobilization in Hanford sediments under unsaturated transient flow
conditions: effect of irrigation pattern. Environ. Sci. Technol.41:3199–3204.