جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ران

1 Department of chemistry, College of Science, University of Garmian, Kurdistan, Iraq

2 Department of chemistry, College of Science, University of Garmian

پوخته‌

The aim of the present study was to characterize some physical and chemical properties of kurdistan honey samples (n = 14). Physicochemical parameters, such as pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), colour intensity (ABS450), density, specific gravity, ash content, 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF), total soluble solids, moisture content, soluble sugars (%Brix) and mineral content were measured and compared with standard properties of honeys from international honey commission as reference. Mean values obtained for physicochemical parameters were: PH; 3.49 and 4.70, EC; 238 to 662 μS/cm, ABS450; 190 to 782 mAU, density; 1.403 -1.48 g/cm3, specific gravity; 1.40-1.47, ash content;  0.054% to 0.297%, HMF; 17.97-45.07 mg/kg, total soluble solids; 82.5 to 86.1%, moisture content; 13.9 to 16.7% and Brix sugar; 80.5 to 84.5%. Potassium was the major mineral in all honey samples (7702.5 mg/kg). All the samples did not show any considerable significant variations with reference to their physical and chemical properties.

وشه‌ بنچینه‌ییه‌كان

1.Silva, L. R., Videira, R., Monteiro, A. P., Valentمo, P., & Andrade, B. (2009). Honey from Luso region (Portugal): Physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents. Microchemical Journal, 93, 73–77.

2.Habib, H. M., Al Meqbali, F. T., Kamal, H., Souka, U. D., & Ibrahim, W. H. (2014). Physicochemical and biochemical properties of honeys from arid regions. Food Chemistry, 153, 35-43.

3.AOAC (1999). Official of Analysis of Association of official Analytical Chemists. 15th ed. Arlington Va U.S.A AOAC. PP 1-50.

4.Azeredo, L. da C., Azeredo, M. A. A., Souza, S. R., & Dutra, V. M. L (2003). Protein contents and physicochemical properties in honey samples of Apis mellifera of different floral origins. Food Chemistry, 80, 249–254.

5.Andrade, P. B., Amaral, M. T., Isabel, P., Carvalho, J., Seabra, R., & Cunha, A. (1999). Physicochemical attributes and pollen spectrum of Portuguese heather honeys. Food Chemistry, 66, 503–510.

6.Kirk, R.; Sawyer, R. Herbs and spices, salt. Composition and Analysis of Foods, 9th ed.; Longman Scientific and Technical: Harlow, UK, 1991; pp. 391–429.

7.Al, M.L.; Daniel, D.; Moise, A.; Bobis, O.; Laslo, L.; Bogdanov, S. Physico-chemical and bioactive properties of different floral origin honeys from Romania. Food Chem. 2009, 112, 863–867.

8.Beretta, G., Granata, P., Ferrero, M., Orioli, M., & Facino, R. M. (2005). Standardization of antioxidant properties of honey by a combination of spectrophotometric/ fluorimetric assays and chemometrics. Analytica Chimica Acta, 533, 185–191.

9.James, O.O, Mesubi, M.A., Usman, L.A., Yeye, S.O. and Ajanaku, K.O. (2009). Physical characteristics of some honey sample from North-central Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences 4: 464-470.

10.Piazza, M. G., Accorti, M., & Persano Oddo, L. (1991). Electrical conductivity, ash, colour and specific rotatory power in Italian unifloral honeys. Apicoltura, 7, 51–63.

11.White, J W (1979) Spectrophotometric method for hydroxymethyl furfural in honey. J Assoc Off Anal Chem Vol 62 509-514.

12.IHC. International Honey Commission. Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission. IHC, FAN, Liebefeld, CH-3003 Bern, 2002.

13.Skujins S. 1998. Handbook for ICP-AES (Varian-Vista). A short guide to Vista Series ICP-AES operation. Version 1.0. Zug, Switzerland: Varian Int. AG.

14.Azeredo, L.C.; Azeredo, M.A.A.; Souza, S.R.; Dutra, V.M.L. Protein contents and physicochemical properties in honey samples of Apis mellifera of different floral origins. Food Chem. 2003, 80, 249–254.

15.Kayacier, A.; Karaman, S. Rheological and some physicochemical characteristics of selected Turkish honeys. J. Texture Stud. 2008, 39, 17–27.

16.Saxena, S.; Gautam, S.; Sharma, A. Physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of some Indian honeys. Food Chem. 2010, 118, 391–397.

17.Yadata, D. (2014). Detection of the electrical conductivity and acidity of honey from different areas of Tepi. Food Science and Technology, 2(5), 59-63.

18.Codex Alimentarius Commission Standards. (2001). CODEX STAN. 12–1981, Rev. 1 (1987), Rev. 2.

19.       Frankel, S., Robinson, G. E., & Berenbaum, M. R. (1998). Antioxidant capacity and correlation characteristics of 14 unifloral honeys. Journal of Apiculture Research, 37, 27–31.

20.Moniruzzaman, M., Khalil, M.I., Sulaiman, S.A., Gan, S.H., 2013. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera. BMC Complementary Alternative Med. 13, 1–12.

21.Lullah-Deh, J. A., Khan, M. E., & Eneji, I. S. (2018). Physicochemical Characteristics of Honey Samples from Mambilla Plateau, Nigeria. Journal of Biomaterials, 2(1), 7.

22.Abrol, D. P. (2013). Beekeeping: A compressive guide to bees and beekeeping. Scientific Publishers.

23.Bath, K. P. and Singh, N. (1997).Quality Evaluation of Different types of Indian honey.Food ChemistryVol; 58. No. 1– 2, pp 129–133.

24.European Union Council (2001).Council Directive (2001)/110/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey.Official Journal of the European Community L10: 47- 52.

25.Habib, H. M., Al Meqbali, F. T., Kamal, H., Souka, U. D., & Ibrahim, W. H. (2014). Physicochemical and biochemical properties of honeys from arid regions. Food Chemistry, 153, 35-43.) (see figure 6, Table 2.

26.Khalil, M. I., Sulaiman, S. A., & Gan, S. H. (2010). High 5-hydroxymethylfurfural concentrations are found in Malaysian honey samples stored for more than one year. Food and chemical toxicology, 48(8-9), 2388-2392.

27.Lee, H.S., Nagy, S., 1990. Relative reactivities of sugars in the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in sugar-catalyst model systems. J. Food Process. Preserv. 14, 171–178.

28.Anonymous, 2003. Honey rescript. Turkish Alimentarus Codex. The Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, 25180. in Turkish.

29.Lagrange, V., Sanders, S.W., 1988. Honey in cereal-based new food products. Cereal Foods World. 33, 833–838.

30.Nyau, V., Mwanza, E. P., & Moonga, H. B. (2013). Physico-chemical qualities of honey harvested from different beehive types in Zambia. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, nutrition and development, 13(2).

31.Ortiz-Valbuena, A., Ferna´ndez-Maeso, M. C., & De La Torre, E. S. M. (1996). Principales caracterý´sticas de la miel de La Alcarria [The main characteristics of the honey from Alcarria]. Toledo: Consejerý´a de Agricultura y Medio Ambiente de La Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha.

32.Simal, J., Huidobro, J., & Araquistain, J.L. (1983). Para´metros de calidad de la miel: determinacio´n del contenido en agua [Quality parameters of honey: Determination of water content]. Offarm, 2, 243–248.

33.Codex Alimentarius Commission. Revised draft for honey at step 6 of the Codex Procedure. CX 5/10.2, CL 1998/12-S 1998.

34.Salim H, Zerrouk I, Biagio G, Elena N, Gabriele F and A Larbi Quality Evaluation of Some Honey from the Central Region of Algeria. Jordan Journal of Biological Sci. 2011; 4 (4): 243 – 248.

35.Nawrocka, A., Durkalec, M., Szkoda, J., & Kmiecik, M. (2016). Determination of trace and essential elements in honey by quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 58METHOD DEVELOPMENT, 52.

36.Akbulut, M., Özcan, M. M., & Çoklar, H. (2009). Evaluation of antioxidant activity, phenolic, mineral contents and some physicochemical properties of several pine honeys collected from Western Anatolia. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 60(7), 577-589.).

37.Terrab A, Recamales AF, Hernanz D, Heredia FJ. 2004. Characterisation of Spanish thyme honeys by their physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents. Food Chem 88:537–542.), (Tüjen M, Silici S, Mendil D, Soylak M. 2007. Trace elements levels in honeys from different regions of Turkey. Food Chem 163:325–330