جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ر

Department of Biology College of Education Garmian University Kalar, Alsulaimaniyah, Kurdistan, Iraq

پوخته‌

Rodents are found worldwide and live close to human inhabitation. They are known as vectors of zoonotic diseases such as viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Investigating parasites of rats and understanding their life cycles have become crucial necessity. The present study aimed to screen for the presence of intestinal parasites and ectoparasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) in Garmian region. An overall 55 live rats (21 male, 34 female) were trapped from three districts in Garmian region (Kalar, Kifri and Khanaqin). The rats were euthanized, dissected and their parasites were identified. The overall rate of infection with at least one parasite was 61.81% (36/55). Four genera of nematodes were identified; Trichuris muris, capillaria spp., Strongyloides sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. with infection rate 20% (11/55). Twenty four out of the 55 rats (43.61%) were infected with Hymenolepis nana and/or Hymenolepis diminuta. Three protozoa were also identified, Giardia muris, Entamoeba muris and Isospora ratti with infection rate of 25.45% (14/55). The flea Xenopsylla cheopis was the only ectoparasite identified from 4 rats (7.27%). Rat from all the three studied areas carried parasites with no significant difference in term of infection rates. Male rats showed significantly higher prevalence of parasites compared to female. Coinfection was observed in rats and some rats carried four types of parasites at one time.  Findings of this study suggest that rats of Garmian region harbor zoonotic parasites which can pose risk to humans and animals. Therefore, actions have to be taken to content the potential of disease transmission.

1.Al-Ali Z.A. and Jabbr A.K. (2006). Effect of some intestinal parasites on hematological parameters in domestic rodents. Journa of Misan Researches. 2 (4), 198-214.

2.Al-Bajalan M.M. (2018). Prevalence of intestinal cestode infections of conventionally maintained laboratory (albino) and house mice in Kalar district / Sulaymaniyah province. Journal of Garmian University. 6(1), 1-13.

3.Antignano F., Mullaly S.C., Burrows K. and Zaph C. (2011). Trichuris muris Infection: A Model of Type 2 Immunity and Inflammation in the Gut. Journal of Visualized Experiments. 11(2774), 1-5.

4.Chaisiri K., Chaeychomsri W., Siruntawineti J., Ribas A., Herbreteau V. and Morand S. (2010). Gastrointestinal Helminth Infections in Asian House Rats (Rattus tanezumi) from Northern and Northeastern Thailand. J. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 33, 29-35.

5.Franssen F., Swart A., van Knapen F. and van der Giessen J. (2016). Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands. Infection Ecology and Epidemiology. 6 (301413), 1-14.

6.Karim A.J and Al-Salihi K.A. (2014).  Diagnostic Study on accidental Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in Laboratory Rats in Iraq. MRVSA. 3(3), 33-40.

7.Kia E.B., Homayouni M., Farahnak A., Mohebali M. and Shojai S. (2001). Study of Endoparasites of Rodents and their Zoonotic Importance in Ahwaz, South West Iran. Iran J Public Health.; 30(1-2), 49-52.

8.Majeed S.A. (2016). Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Rattus rattus in some districts in Baghdad/ Iraq. Al-Anbar J. Vet. Sci. 9 (1), 43-48.

9.Meshkekar M., Sadraei J., Mahmoodzadeh A. and Mobedi I. (2014). Helminth Infections in Rattus ratus and Rattus norvigicus in Tehran, Iran. Iranian J Parasitol. 9 (4), 548-552.

10.Molan A. and Faraj A.M (2016). Concise Medical Parasitology. 2nd edition. Iraq, P.128-200.

11.Morales-Montor J., Chavarria A., De Leon, M. A., Del Castillo  L.I., Escobedo E,G., Sanchez E.N., Vargas J.A., Hernandez-Flores M., Romo-Gonzalez T. and Larralde C. (2004).Host Gender in Parasitic Infections of Mammals: An Evaluation of the Female Host Supremacy Paradigm. The Journal of Parasitology. 90 (3), 531-546.

12.Nayyef H.J. (2017). Occurrence of protozoal parasites in Rattus rattus rodent in baghdad and outskirts, IRAQ. I.J.S.N. 8 (2), 386-389.

13.Pakdel N., Naem S., Rezaei F. and Chalechaleh A. (2013). Survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) in Kermanshah, Iran. Veterinary Research Forum. 4 (2) 105 – 109.

14.Parshad VR. Rodent control in India. Integrative Pest Management Review.1999; 4: 97-126.

15.Seifollahi Z., Sarkari B., Motazedian M.H., Asgari Q., Ranjbar M.J. and Khabisi S.A. (2016). Protozoan Parasites of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Significance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran. Veterinary Medicine International. 1-5.

16.Sharma D., Joshi S., Vatsya S. and Yadav C.L. (2013). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in rodents of Tarai region of Uttarakhand. Parasit Dis. 37(2),181–184.

17.Singleton, G.R., Smythe, L., Smith, G., Spratt, D.M., alpin, K. and Smith, A.L. (2003). Rodent diseases in Southeast Asia and Australia: inventory of recent surveys. In: Rats, Mice and people: rodent biology and management. ACIAR Monograph No 96. (Ed: G.R. Singleton, L.A. Hinds, C.J. Krebs and D.M. Sparrt) Canberra, Australian Center for international Agricultural Research; Pp.24-29.

18.Siti Shafiyyah C.O., Jamaiah I., Rohela M., Lau Y.L. and Siti Aminah F. Prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 29(4), 544-50.

19.Smith K.F. and Carpenter S.M. (2006). Potential spread of introduced black rat (Rattus rattus) parasites to endemic deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on the California Channel Islands. Diversity and Distributions, (Diversity Distrib.) 12, 742–748.

20.Soliman S, Marzouk AS, Main AJ, Montasser AA (2001) Effect of sex, size and age of commensal rat hosts on the infestation parameters of their ectoparasites in a rural area of Egypt. J Parasitol 87:1308–1316.

 

21.Soliman S., Marzouk A.S., Main A.J., Montasser A.A. (2001): Effect of sex, size and age of comensal rat hosts on the infestation parameters of their ectoparasites in a rural area of Egypt. J. Parasitol., 87, 1308-1316.

22.Soulsby, E. J. L. (1986). Helminths, Arthropodes and protozoa of domesticated Animals. 7 eds. Bailliere Tindal, London, U.K. pp: 99-166.

23.Taylor K.D. (1978). Range of Movement and Activity of Common Rats (Rattus norvegicus) on Agricultural Land. Journal of Applied Ecology. 15 (3), 663-677.

24.Terraube J. (2015) "Coping with fast climate change in northern ecosystems: mechanisms underlying the population-level response of a specialist avian predator." Ecography 38.7: 690-699.

25.Yokohata Y., Abe H., Ping Jiang Y. and Kamiya M. (1989). Gastrointestinal helminth fauna of japanese moles, Mocera spp. jpn. J. Vet. Res. 37, 1-13.