Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Sciences and Health, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil

2 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani

3 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Science, Knowledge University


Kurdistan air temperature records from 1973 to 2018. Kurdistan's climate is marked by daily and annual temperature and rainfall variations. Kurdistan's environmental and climatic conditions vary due to its latitude and altitude, ranging from Mandali at 150 m to Halgurd (Hasarost) at 3607 m. In Iraq, the Kurdistan Region is located between latitude 34-37 and longitude 41-46.
Remarkably, Sulaimani is the coldest and wettest province. In 1982, the annual average temperature was 12.45 °C. In 2017, Erbil, Kurdistan's capital, reached 25°C, with an annual mean of 19.05°C. Kurdistan's average temperature change was 2.09 °C. From ancient times to the present, the world average temperature was less than one (0.80 oC). The Washington Post reported in 2021 that Iraq's temperature had risen 4.1 degrees Fahrenheit (2.27 °C) since the turn of the century. However, the average global surface temperature rose by 0.75°C (1.3 oF). From October 31 to November 14, 2021, over 200 countries agreed to intensify efforts to keep global temperatures below 2 °C.


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