جۆری توێژینهوه: Original Article
Department of biology, College of Education , University of Garmian
Scientific Research Center, College of Science, University of Duhok
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sallahaddin
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the oldest and the most extensively grown fruit plants worldwide with regards to its great economic significance throughout the world. Northern part of Iraq (Kurdistan) is regarded as one of the regions in Iraq where grapevine plants have been taken into cultivation. Despite the economic importance of grapevine cultivars in this region, they have not been precisely classified and their genetic data is also limited. In the present study 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity among 13 local grape cultivars, also determining their genetic relationships with four Eurpean ones (17 cultivars studied). Results showed that the observed number of alleles (N) per locus varied from 3 to 9 with an average of 5.25 and the values of polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.28 to 0.776. Despite the average value (0.1716) of observed heterozygosity (Ho) was less than the average level (0.6427) of expected heterozygosity (He), results were relatively demonstrated a random union of gametes in the population. In addition, genetic similarity among respective cultivars ranged from 0.17 to 0.1, indicating valuable genetic variation among studied cultivars. The analysis of UPGMA clustering demonstrated high genetic variation among those cultivars and grouped them into three main clusters. Findings from the present study might render striking information in determining local cultivars and in breeding management strategies that are of importance for genetic conservation and cultivar improvement.
- Agar G, Yildirim N, Ercisli S, et al. (2012) Determination of genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera cv. Kabarcik populations from the Coruh Valley using SSR markers. Biochemical genetics 50: 476-483.
- Basheer-Salimia R and Mujahed A. (2019) Genetic diversity of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as revealed by ISSR markers. Journal of Plant Biotechnology 46: 1-8.
- Brookfield J. (1996) A simple new method for estimating null allele frequency from heterozygote deficiency. Molecular Ecology 5: 453-455.
- Dauob R, Makhoul G and Mahfoud H. (2018) Genetic Diversity among Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivars of Tartous Province (Syria) using Microsatellite Markers. SSRG International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science 5: 54-58.
- Dzhambazova T, Tsvetkov I, Atanassov I, et al. (2009) Genetic diversity in native Bulgarian grapevine germplasm (Vitis vinifera L.) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite polymorphisms.
- Emanuelli F, Lorenzi S, Grzeskowiak L, et al. (2013) Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape. BMC plant biology 13: 39.
- Eyduran SP, Ercisli S, Akin M, et al. (2016) Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 30: 26-31.
- Filippo F, Elisabetta N, La MS, et al. (2018) First characterisation of minor and neglected Vitis vinifera L. cultivars from Mount Etna. Horticultural Science 45: 37-46.
- Flajoulot S, Ronfort J, Baudouin P, et al. (2005) Genetic diversity among alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars coming from a breeding program, using SSR markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 111: 1420-1429.
- Grassi F, Labra M, Imazio S, et al. (2006) Phylogeographical structure and conservation genetics of wild grapevine. Conservation Genetics 7: 837-845.
- Hvarleva T, Rusanov K, Lefort F, et al. (2004) Genotyping of Bulgarian Vitis vinifera L. cultivars by microsatellite analysis. Vitis-geilweilerhof- 43: 27-34.
- Imazio S, Maghradze D, De Lorenzis G, et al. (2013) From the cradle of grapevine domestication: molecular overview and description of Georgian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) germplasm. Tree Genetics & Genomes 9: 641-658.
- Karatas H, karaağaç E, karataş d, et al. (2019) Molecular analysis of grapevine germplasm by SSR (simple sequence repeats) in diyarbakir province, Turkey. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17: 3927-3939.
- Khadivi A, Gismondi A and Canini A. (2019) Genetic characterization of Iranian grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and their relationships with Italian ecotypes. Agroforestry systems 93: 435-447.
- Laucou V, Launay A, Bacilieri R, et al. (2018) Extended diversity analysis of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera with 10K genome-wide SNPs. PLoS One 13: e0192540.
- Lopes M, Mendonça D, Rodrigues dos Santos M, et al. (2009) New insights on the genetic basis of Portuguese grapevine and on grapevine domestication. Genome 52: 790-800.
- Martín J, Borrego J, Cabello F, et al. (2003) Characterization of Spanish grapevine cultivar diversity using sequence-tagged microsatellite site markers. Genome 46: 10-18.
- Nagaty MA and El-Din E-AS. (2011) Molecular characterization and genetic relationships among some grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars as revealed by RAPD and SSR markers. European Journal of Experimental Biology 1: 71-82.
- Nunez Y, Fresno J, Torres V, et al. (2004) Practical use of microsatellite markers to manage Vitis vinifera germplasm: molecular identification of grapevine samples collected blindly in DO “El Bierzo”(Spain). The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 79: 437-440.
- Park Y-J, Lee JK and Kim N-S. (2009) Simple sequence repeat polymorphisms (SSRPs) for evaluation of molecular diversity and germplasm classification of minor crops. Molecules 14: 4546-4569.
- Pipia I, Gogniashvili M, Tabidze V, et al. (2012) Plastid DNA sequence diversity in wild grapevine samples (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris) from the Caucasus region. Vitis 51: 119-124.
- Rambaut A. (2009) FigTree v1. 3.1: Tree figure drawing tool. Edinburgh, UK.
- Rao V, Narayanaswamy P and Murthy B. (2014) Genetic Diversity Analysis in Grape (Vitis vinifera L) Germplasm using Microsatellite Markers. American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences 6: 12-18.
- Riaz S, De Lorenzis G, Velasco D, et al. (2018) Genetic diversity analysis of cultivated and wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) accessions around the Mediterranean basin and Central Asia. BMC plant biology 18: 137.
- Schuck MR, Biasi LA, Moreira FM, et al. (2014) Use of microsatellite markers to assess the identity and genetic diversity of Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia cultivars. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy 36: 301-308.
- Şelli F, Bakır M, Inan G, et al. (2007) Simple sequence repeat-based assessment of genetic diversity in Dimrit and Gemre grapevine accessions from Turkey. Vitis 46: 182-187.
- Tangolar SG, Soydam S, Bakir M, et al. (2009) Genetic analysis of grapevine cultivars from the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey based on SSR Markers. Tarim Bilim Derg 15: 1-8.
- Wei X, Wang L, Zhang Y, et al. (2014) Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of sesame (Sesamum indicum) from a genome survey. Molecules 19: 5150-5162.