جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ر

Department of History, College of Human Sciences, University of Halabja

پوخته‌

To undertake a historical study on the political, military, economic and diplomatic positions of the British representatives in Iraq and the region in general during the transformation from Ottoman rule to a new, independence-seeking political unit of Iraq, after the First World War, it is important to examine the perspectives of the British civil and military authorities and their plan toward the Kurdish districts of the Mosul vilayet, especially southern Kurdistan and protecting the northern frontier of Iraq.
Although detailed studies of British post-war strategy towards Iraq have already been undertaken by Western and Eastern historians, much of the historical work that has been done on the British view and their attitude towards southern Kurdistan in general and the local government in Sulaymaniyah in particular, tends more to use imperfect narrations writing from the standpoint of ideological, ethic and political interests. Therefore, through an exhaustive use of British official archives, and analysing original British unpublished documents from various departments of government, this study attempts to objective understanding of the attitude of British officials in London, India and Iraq, toward the future of southern Kurdistan.
This study consists of two main sections, the first section examines the situation of southern Kurdistan in the course of World War I. The second one investigates the beginning of the emergence of the Anglo - Kurdish political relations, as well as an analysis of the official position of British representatives toward the local government in Sulaymaniyah.
This study rests upon official British and unpublished documents found in the British National Archives, British Library and Parliamentary Archives in London and the Middle East Centre at Oxford University and others were relied upon.

وشه‌ بنچینه‌ییه‌كان

  1. Michael M. Gunter, The Kurds Ascending: the Evolving Solution to the Kurdish Problem in Iraq and Turkey (New York, 2008), pp.1-4; David McDowall, A Modern History of the Kurds (London, 2007), pp.6-8.
  2. BL/L/PS/10/781/2, ‘Telegram from Political, Baghdad to India Office’, 7 December 1918; BL/L/PS/10/781/2, ‘Kurdistan, note by political department, India Office’, 14 December 1918; Charles Townshend, When God Made Hell: The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq 1914-1921 (London: Faber, 2010) ,p.494.
  3. Los Angeles Times, ‘Fourteen real Peace Points’, 13 October 1918.
  4. St. Antony College, Middle East Centre Archive, Edmonds, 6/2, ‘Review of the Civil Administration of the occupied territories of Iraq, 1914-1918’ November 1918.
  5. TNA/WO/32/5806/2205, ‘The Potential Enemies in Mesopotamia’, 15 April 1920; Rafiq Hilmi, Yadasht, Kurdish text (the Memoir), (Sulaimaniya, 2003), p.43.
  6. TNA/FO/371/3398, ‘Memorandum of interview between Sir P. Cox and Sharif Pasha’, 6 June 1918.
  7. TNA/FO/371/3407, ‘Memorandum by Cox to the Secretary of State for India, relations with the tribes of southern Kurdistan’, 7 December 1917.
  8. TNA/FO/371/3407, ‘Cox to the Secretary of State for India’, 7 December 1917.
  9. TNA/CO/969/2, ‘Administration report of the Diala division’, 1919; The Times, ‘Parliament’, 7 February 1908.

10. TNA/FO/141/806, ‘Précis of affairs in southern Kurdistan during the great war, Office of Civil Commissioner’, June 1919; The Times, ‘Russian leave Mesopotamia’, 10 July 1917; The Times, ‘The case of Kurdistan’, 15 November 1919; Longrigg, Stephen Hemsley, Iraq 1900 to 1950: A Political, Social and Economic History (London: Oxford University Press, 2nd ed. 1956).  p.96; McDowall, History of the Kurds, p.107.

11. TNA/FO/371/3407, ‘from Political, Baghdad’, 15 October 1918.

12. HC Deb, series. 5, vol. 108, cols.1615-6, 23 July 1918; The Times, ‘Advance on Mosul road’, 9 May 1918; The Times, ‘The victory on the Mosul road’, 20 May 1918; The Times, ‘The case of Kurdistan’, 15 November 1919;

13. Alexander Cobbe, Graaff Hunter, Charles T. Beale and S. Murray ‘Central Kurdistan: Discussion’, Geographical Journal, 54, no. 6 (1919), p. 345.

14. Hilmi, Memoir, 29-31.

15. TNA/AIR/20/512, ‘Telegram from Political, Baghdad to the Secretary of State for India’, 17 November 1918.

16. TNA/FO/141/806, ‘Précis of affairs’.

17. Wilson, Arnold Talbot, Sir, Mesopotamia 1917-1920, a clash of loyalties (London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, 1931), p.102.

18. TNA/FO/371/3407 and TNA/AIR/20/512, ‘Telegram from political, Baghdad to the Secretary of State for India’, 1 November 1918.

19. Ibid.

20. TNA/AIR/20/512, ‘Telegram from Political, Baghdad to the Secretary of State for India’, 16 November 1918.

21. BL/ADD/MS/52456/B, ‘Office of Civil Commissioner, Baghdad’, 14 November 1919.

22. TNA/AIR/20/512, ‘Telegram from Political, Baghdad to the Secretary of State for India’, 31 October 1918; Wilson, Mesopotamia, 127-128.

23. BL/L/PS/10/781/2, ‘political department, India Office’, 7 December 1918; TNA/FO/141/806, ‘Précis of affairs’; The Times, ‘the case of Kurdistan’, 17 November 1919.

24. TNA/AIR/20/512, ‘Noel to Civil Commissioner in Baghdad’, 16 November 1918; TNA/AIR/20/512, ‘Political, Baghdad to the Secretary of State for India’. 31 October 1918.

25. TNA/FO/371/5069, ‘Administration report of the Sulaimaniyah division’, 1919; TNA/FO/608/95, ‘Memorandum by Major Noel to A.P.O’s Kirkuk, Kifri and Altun-Keupry’, 8 December 1918.

26. TNA/FO/141/806, ‘Précis of affairs’; The Times, ‘The case of Kurdistan’, 17 November 1919.

27. Wilson, Mesopotamia, p.129.

28. BL/L/PS/10/781/2, ‘political department, India Office’, 7 December 1918.

29. Wilson, Mesopotamia, p.129.

30. Hilmi, Memoir, pp. 51-52.

31. BL/L/PS/10/781/2, ‘political department, India Office’, 7 December 1918.

32. TNA/FO/608/95, ‘Major Noel to A.P.O’S Kirkuk, Kifri and Altun-Keupri’; TNA/AIR/23/324, ‘Special Service Office (SSO) (Sulaimaniyah) to Air Staff Intelligence (Baghdad)’, 30 June 1927, quoted in Jordi Tejel Gorges, ‘Urban Mobilization in Iraqi Kurdistan during the British mandate: Sulaimaniyah 1918-30’, Middle Eastern studies (2008), p.539.

33. Wilson, Mesopotamia, p.133; TNA/FO/608/95, ‘Major Noel to A.P.O’S Kirkuk, Kifri and Altun-Keupri’.

34. Longrigg, Iraq, 1900-1950, p.104.

35. BL/L/PS/10/781/2, ‘Telegram from Secretary of State for India to Civil Commissioner, Baghdad’, 6 December 1918; BL/L/PS/10/781/2, ‘Telegram from Political, Baghdad to India Office’, 8 December 1918.

36. BL/L/PS/10/781/2, ‘Telegram from Political, Baghdad to India Office’, 8 December 1918; BL/L/PS/10/781/2, ‘India Office recommendations’, 20 December 1918.

37. BL/IOR/L/MIL/5/789, ‘Telegram from Political, Baghdad to India Office’, 13 June 1919; TNA/CO/969/2 and TNA/FO/371/5069 ‘Administration report of Kirkuk division’, 1 January to 31 December 1919.

38. TNA/FO/371/5069, ‘Sulaimaniyah division’.

39. Wilson, Mesopotamia, p. 134.

40. BL/ADD/MS/52455/C, Wilson to Hirtzel, 24 November 1919.

41. Townshend, When God Mad Hell, pp.496-497;

42. BL/IOR/L/MIL/5/789, ‘Telegram from Baghdad to India Office’, 25 May 1919; TNA/FO/608/95, ‘Telegram from political Baghdad to India Office’, 29 May 1919; TNA/FO/371/4192, ‘Telegram from Baghdad to India Office’, 27 May 1919; TNA, CAB/45/99, ‘Report about the situation in Sulaimaniyah’, 20 June 1919; Wilson, Mesopotamia, p.136.