جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ران

1 Kalar Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, KRG-Iraq

2 University of Garmian, Kalar, As Sulaymaniayah, KRG-Iraq

پوخته‌

Under drought conditions, barley grain related traits are affected by water stress and reduced grain yield potential. Therefore, two experiments were carried out at  the Kalar technical institute for two seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 testing five hybrid of tow-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under irrigated and unirrigated conditions. Genotypes were assessed for thousand grain weight, grain filling duration and grains number per particular of spike length. The average of both years , drought significantly reduced thousand grain weight by 7.63 g and shortened grain filling duration by 44.3 oCd, but not affected grains number may due to genetically controlling this trait. Genotypes 3//4 and 3//14 scored highest values of thousand grain weight and grain filling duration under both irrigated and drought conditions. However, genotype 3//1 was least affected by drought for both thousand grain weight and grain filling duration indicating higher resistance against water stress for this genotype. Regression analysis showed a positive relationship between thousand grain weight and grain filling duration under both irrigated (R2=0.85; P=0.03) and unirrigated (R2=0.80; P=0.04) conditions averaging over seasons showing the importance of post-anthesis period to increase the single grain weight. The correlation between thousand grain weight and grains number, however, was negative for the cross-year mean under drought conditions (R2=0.75; P=0.05) may due to the trade-off between these two traits.

Algebra, F. I; MZ. Hussain; S. Aishia; and Daur I. (2015). Effect of Rht alleles on wheat grain yield and quality under high temperature and drought stress during booting and anthesis. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 22:15506-15515.

Al-Taie, F. H.; C. Sycand and J. Stoops (1969). Soil groups of Iraq, their classification and characteristics-pedologie, 19:65-148.

Aziz, S. N. (2006). Survey and classification of some soils from Kurdistan region. M.Sc. thesis submitted to the university of Sulaimani, college of agriculture.

Dimova, D., Valcheva, D., S. Zapranov and G. Mihova, (2006). Ecological plasticity and stability in the yield of winter barley varieties, Jubilee conference 65 years agrarian science in Dobrudzha. Field Crop Studies, 3 (2): 197-203.

Evans, L. T. and I. F. Wardlaw, (1976). Aspects of the comparative physiology of grain yield in cereals, Academic Press, New York. Advance in Agronomy, 28: 301-359.

GraphPad Prism version 8.0.0 for Windows (2019), Linear regression analysis was performed using graphPad Software, San Diego, California USA, www.graphpad.com.

Helbaek, h. (1953). Archaeology and agricultural botany. Ann. Rept. Inst. Archaeol. pp. 45-59, illus. London.

Kassim, J. K.; K. Z. Al-Janabi and M. I. Karim (1989). Soil temperature regimes in Iraq: II-Relationships between soil temperature and latitude, longitude and elevation. J. Agri. Water Reso. Res. 8(1):111-121. 

Kumari, M. (2013). Association of staygreen trait with canopy temperature depression and yield traits under terminal heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 190.1: 87-97.

Linear regression analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism version 8.0.0 for Windows (2019), GraphPad Software, San Diego, California USA, www.graphpad.com.

Mahmood, Y. A. (2010). Full Diallel Crosses in Two-rowed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). M.Sc. thesis submitted to the university of Sulaimani, college of agriculture.

Maisa’a, F., Adel H. Abdel-Ghani, and Nedal F. Al-Majali. (2013). Response of barely varieties to drought stress imposed at different developmental stages. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9.4.

Penchev, P. and V. Koteva, (2002). Impact of agro-meteorological conditions on productivity of winter forage barley. Selection and Agro Technology Arable Crops, 2: 517-522.

Rasmussen, D. C. and R. Q. Chanel, (1970). Selection for grain yield and components of yield in barley. Crop Science, 10: 51-54.

Reid, D.A. & G.A. Wiebe, 1979. Toxonomy, botany, classification, and world collection, pp. 78–103. In: USDA, USA (Eds). Barley-Agricultural Handbook No. 338, Washington D.C.

Serrago, R. (2013). Understanding grain yield responses to source–sink ratios during grain filling in wheat and barley under contrasting environments. Field Crops Research 150: 42-51.

Shao, Hong-Bo, et al. "Water-deficit stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants." Comptes rendus biologies 331.3 (2008): 215-225.‏

Sinebo, W., (2002). Determination of grain protein concentration in barley: Yield relationship of barleys grown in a tropical highland environment. Crop Science Journal, 24: 428-437.

VSN International (2017). Genstat for Windows 19th Edition. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK.

Walter, H. and H. Leith (1960). Climadigram welt atlas. Jena, 4: 434.

Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF. (1974). A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed research 14, 415-421.

Zhang J (2011). China's success in increasing per capita food production. J. Exp. Bot. 62: 3707-3711.