جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ران

1 Diyala university

2 Ministry of environment

پوخته‌

Radon gas is the second cause of lung cancer and it is found naturally in rocks, soil ground and surface water. In this study, Radon gas concentration  measurements were performed in (39) drinking water and (29) soil  samples for Kirkuk City. It is found that the value of Radon (Rn)  concentration in drinking water ranged from ( 0.07 -5.01  )  Bq /L with an average of (  0.97    ) Bq/L. These results showed that Radon concentration in Kirkuk City drinking water are within the United State Environmental Protection  Agency(EPA) and World Health Organization(WHO) standards maximum contaminated level (MCL) of 11 Bq /L. The finding:-  of this study refer that no risk from exposure to Radon gas in Kirkuk drinking water supply.From other hand, Radon in soil results showed that mean values was( 381.65± 189) Bq/m3,with maximum and minimum value 883and 87 Bq/m3 respectively. This results lied within the allowable standards adopted by International Commissions of Radon Protection(ICRP) which is (200-800) Bq/m3  . By comparing the results of present study with other local studies in different sites all over Iraq, it can be noticed that the finding of this study were greater than most of other studies results. That difference can be explained due to geological structure diversity of different governorate in Iraq, as Radon gas generated from soil and correlate strongly to soil structure and rock types.

[1] Inácioac M., Soaresabc S ,Almeidad P., Radon concentration assessment in water sources of public drinking of Covilhã's county, Portugal, Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 10, No. 2, PP: 135-139,2017.

[2] Handbook of environmental engineering,volume2:advanced air and noise pollution control, edited byL.K.Wang,N.C.Pereira,and Y.T. Hung.The human press,Inc.Totowa. NJ.

[3] K.D .Cliff., 1982.Postgraduate radiological protection course,lec: L137,Harwel,Great Britain.

[4] K.M.Abumurad.,(2001).Chance of lung cancer due to Radon exposure in Al-Mazar Al-Shamali,Jordan,Radiation Measurment.34,pp:537-540.

[5] Canada mortgage , Housing Corporation and Health Canada,CMHCHC.,(1997).Radon: a guide for Canadian home owners.

[6] United State Nuclear Regulatory Commission Protecting People and the Environment, Biological  effects of radiation ,fact sheet,(2011).

[7] Kulwat Singh, Surinder Singh, Rohit Mehra, Manmohan Singh and Z.Papp.,(2006).Measurement of Radon and Thoron progeny outdoor in Malout,India,using grab aerosol sampling and beta counting, Radiation Measurments,vol.41,1,pp:108-111.

[8] D.Krewski, J.H.Lubin, J.M.Zeilinski, M.Alranje, V.S.Catalan and R.W.Field, a Residential Radon and risk of lung cancer: a combined analysis of 7th north America case-control studies,EpideiologyMarch,2005.

[9] Ernesto Vocaturo ,Eva Kunstler, Gariela Slovakova, Juri Runt, Olga Cavoura, Peter Otorepec. Radon levels in dwellings,home,environment and health issues,uv and ionizing radiation,January,2008.

[10] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2012. Toxicological Profile for Radon. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Public Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. http:// www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfags/index.asp.

 [11] Ali Gokmem, Inci Gokmen, and Yung-Tse Hung. Radon Pollution Control, In Handbook of Environmental Engineering,volume2: Advanced Air and Noise Pollution Control. Edited by L.K.Wang, N.C.Pereira,and Y.T.Hung.The Human Press,Inc,Totowa,NJ,USA,2005.

 

[12] Shaza Issa, S.Musmar and H.Zabadi. Radon concentration measurements in the drinking water supply of Nablus city, Palestine, International graduate conference on science,humanties and engineering,2011, Al-Najah Unversity,Palestine.

 [13] Amir Husan Ali Al-Jubory,(2003),Determination of depleted Uranium in the scraps of military equipment in specific locations of south Iraq using HPGE.m.sc thesis, college of science, Mousel university, Iraq.

[14] Huda Sadee Ali.(2012).Measurements of radiation pollution in the dust storm of the city of Tikrit by using the nuclear CN-85,Anbar journal for pure science.6(3).

[15] Radiation control Center, Radon measurements report, printed technical report,Iraq,2012.

[16]Ali Mustfa Mohammad.(2011).Measurements of Radon concentration in soil samples of some sulfuric spring in Hit city using CR-39 detector, Baghdad science jurnal.8(4).pp:972-975.

[17] Ahmed Mohamed Obaid.(2012).Sensitivity and sensing  of soil gas Radon pollution in certain area of the province of Salahidin using CR-39 detector, Anbar journal for pure science.5(2).

[18] Huda Sadee Ali.(2012).Measurements of radiation pollution in the dust storm of the city of Tikrit by using the nuclear CN-85,Anbar journal for pure science.6(3).

[19]Nidhala H.Khadim, Dawser H.Ghayb and NoorY.Ahmed, 2011.Radon concentration in soil of Fallujaha, Ramadi, Diayla, Wasit and nearby Baghdad sites using SSNTDS, Iraqi journal of science.52(1),pp:44-47.

[20]Hassan M.Jaber,2013.Measurment of Radon gas concentration in cement samples by using nuclear track detector-LR-115,Kirkuk university journal-scientific studies.8(3),pp:48-54.

[21]Al-KhaliFa, I.J.M.,Najim H. and Baker H. Determination of Radon concentration in ground water of Basrah governorate by using solid state nuclear track detectors. Journal of Kufa-physics.special issue Kufa first conference for physics.PP:114-124,2010.

[22] H.A.Hammood and I.J.M.Al-Khalifa.Radon concentration in water of Dhi-Qar governorate using Emanometer.Journal of Basrah researches.volume.37.No.5.2011.

[23] Saeed. H and Sabah Y. H Determination of Radon ,Uranium and other radioactive isotopes concentration in different type of natural water in Neneva. governorate,Jordinan journal of physics,volume8.No.4.pp227-244.2015.

[24] Najeb F.S., Zubir M.,J and Mohamad S.,J. Measurement of Radon and Uranium concentration in drinking water in Kirkuk governorate. Journal of scientific research and development.Volume2,No.13, pp127-133,2015.

[25] Dhameer A.Mutlak. Talal A.Alani. and Ahmed Farhan. Determination of Radon gas concentration and annual effective dose in groundwater samples in some region  in Anbar governorate. Journal of college of education.Volume1,No.1,2015

[26] Abdalsattar K. Hashim and Rajaa Hussien Abd Ali, Measurement of Annual Effective Doses   of Radon in Plastic Bottled Mineral Water Samples in Iraq. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Volume9,No.5, 2015, PP: 31-35.

[27] Khalid H. Hatif, Mohsin K, Muttaleb and Alyaa H. Abass, Measurement of Radioactive Radon Gas Concentrations of Water in the schools for Kifel, world scientific news journal                  Volume54,PP:  191-201, 2016.

 [28] A.A.Al-Hamadwi ,A.A.Al.Bayati and A.H.Al.Mashhadani, Radon and Thoron Concentration measurement of Ground Water in Kufa City by using RAD7 detector, Journal of Kufa – physics, Volume.4 No.2 ,2012.

 [29] Ali A. Abojassim, Radon Concentrations Measurement for Drinking Water in Kufa

City /Iraq Using Active Detecting Method, Advances in Physics Theories and Applications,Volume26,PP:30-35,2013.

 [30] Asaad H. Ismail and Salih O. Haji, Analysis of Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Erbil Governorate (Iraqi Kurdistan) and its Health Effects, Tikrit Journal of Pure Science Volume. 13 No. 3, 2008.

 [31] Seja F. Hassan, Measurement of the radon gas emanation from drinking water samples from regions in northwest Baghdad governorate by using nuclear track detector (CR-39), Journal of college of education,No3,2016.

 

[32] Mohsin K. M. Al-jnaby, Radon Concentration in Drinking Water Samples at Hilla city, Iraq,

  world scientific news journal, Volume. 52 ,PP: 130-142,2016.

 [33] Wadad R.Alharbi, Adel G.E.Abbady ,and El-Taher A, Radon concentration measurements for groundwater using active detecting method, American Scientific Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Science,volume14.No 1.PP 1-11,2015.

 [34] R. G. Sonkawade, Rewa Ram, D. K. Kanjilal and R. C. Ramola, Radon in Tube-Well Drinking Water and Indoor Air, Indoor and Built Environment,volume13,PP383, 2004.

 [35] Showekani R and Rejaa G, radiation activities in drinking water  Hems city, Syria, technical report No.789,Syrian atomic commission, republic of Syria, 2008.

 [36] JogaSingh, Harmanjit Singh ,Surinder Singh, B.S.Bajwa, Estimation of uranium and radon concentration in some drinking water samples, Radiation Measurements, Elsevier Radiation Measurements ,Volume 43, No. 1, PP523-526, 2008.

 [37] OktayBaykara and Mahmut Dogˇru, Measurements of radon and uranium concentration in water and soil samples from East Anatolian Active Fault Systems (Turkey), Radiation Measurements, Volume 41, No. 3, PP 362-367, 2006.

 [38]  Cosmaa C, M.Moldovan, DicuaT, Kovacsb T., Radon in water from Transylvania (Romania), Radiation Measurements, Volume 43, No. 8, PP 1423-1428 , 2008.