جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ر

garmian university ,college of language and human sciences ,English department, Kurdistan, Iraq

پوخته‌

Humor brings people together under shared laughter. However, since humor requires highly sensitive linguistic and cultural competence, expressing and appreciating humor is often a challenge in cross-cultural communication. What is considered as funny may differ across cultures. This paper discusses the ability of the EFL to distinguish humorous and unhumorous texts ,and more specifically investigates the types  of humor in the language classroom. At the outset of the paper, some theoretical backgrounds have been provided to account the use of humor and its styles ,types and theories . To achieve the aims of the study the collected data of the test which has been applied on a sample of EFl university students , the data have been analyzed by using SPSS . The results have shown that the subjects faces difficulty in the recognition of humouros text generally and its types particularly. since lexical ambiguity is the core of language - based jokes, this paper examines and reviews this ambiguity and the humorous effect presented by humor .  Students' errors can be attributed to certain factors among which the lack of using English humor in real life situation in communicative ways and the deficiency of focusing on sense of humor in literature subjects curricula  during their university study .

وشه‌ بنچینه‌ییه‌كان

10      Anastasia,Anne(1976)Psychological Testing . 4th ed.New York :Macmillan publishing Co.,Inc.

11      Alexander, R. D. (1986). Ostracism and indirect reciprocity: The reproductive significance of humor. Ethology and Sociobiology, 7(3), 253–270. doi:10.1016/0162-3095(86)90052-X.

12      Arbuckle, G. A. (2008). Laughing With God: Humor, Culture and Transformation. Minnesota: Liturgical.

13      Attardo, S. 1994, Linguistic Theories of Humor [M]. Berlin and NewYork: Moutode Gruyter.

14      Bachman, Lyle F.(1990)Fundamental Consideration in Language Testing.Oxford  university press.

15      Berg ,Brauce L.(2004)Qualitative Research Methods for Social Sciences.

16      Boston :person education.   

17      Banas, J. A., Dunbar, N., Rodriguez, D., & Liu, S.-J. (2011). A review of humor in educational settings: Four decades of research. Communication Education, 60(1), 115–144. doi:10.1080/03634523.2010.496867.

18      Bariaud, Francoise. Chapter 1: Age Differences in Children's Humor. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society. 1989, 20(1-2), 15-45. DOI: 10.1300/J274v20n01_03. ISSN 0276-6256. Dostupné také z: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J274v20n01_03

19      Critchley, S. (2002). On humour. Thinking in action. London: Routlege.

20      Charles R.Gruner. 2000, The Game of Humor : a comprehensive theory of why we laugh. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey 0893.

21      Delabastita, D. (1993). There's A Double Tongue. Amsterdam: Rod Opi.

22      Garner, R. L. (2006). Humor in pedagogy: How ha-ha can lead to aha!. College Teaching, 54(1), 177-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/CTCH.54.1.177-180.

23      Gordon, G. (1999). Turning Toward philosophy: Literary Device And Dramatic Structure in Plato's Dialogues. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

24      Herawan, T, Deriss, M. M., & Albawajy, J. (2013). Proceedings of the First International Conference on Advanced Data and Information Engineering. London: Springer.

25      Heaton ,J.B.(1990)Writing English Language Tests :A Practical Guide for Teachers of English as a Second Language  or Foreign Language. 3rd  ed. London :Longman Group Limited

26      Hobbes, Thomas. (1660/1987). Thomas Hobbes. In John Morreall (Ed.), Philosophy of laughter and humor (pp. 19-20).

27      Holmes, J. 2000. Politeness, power and provocation: How humour functions in the

28      workplace. Discourse Studies, 2(2), 159 – 185.

29      Hughes ,Arthur (2003) Testing for language Teachers . Cambridge :Cambridge University Press.

30      Humor. Dictionary and Thesaurus: Merriam-Webster [online]. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 2015 [cit. 2016-03-30]. Dostupné z: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/humor

31      Humor. Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus: The Free Dictionary [online]. Farlex, Inc, ©2003-2016 [cit. 2016-03-30]. Dostupné z: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/humor.

32      Madsen ,Harold S.(1983) Techniques in Testing.Oxford .Oxford University Press

33      Martin, R. A., 2000. Humor. In: A.E. Kazdin, ed. Encyclopedia of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

34      Martin, R. A., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J., & Weir, K. (2003). Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the Humor Styles Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(1), 48–75. doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00534-2.

35      Martin, R. A., 2007.  The Psychology  of Humor. An integratetive approach .burlington,MA:Elesvier.

36      Marta Dynel( 2009)Beyond a Joke: Types of Conversational Humour Journal Compilation ª 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.  Language and Linguistics Compass 3/5 (2009): 1284–1299, 10.1111/j.1749-818x.2009.00152.x.

37      McCreaddie, M., & Wiggins, S. (2008). The purpose and function of humour in health, health care and nursing: a narrative review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 61(6), 584–595. doi:10.1111/j. 1365-2648.2007.04548.x.

38      McNamara,Tim (2000)Language Testing. Oxford .Oxford University Press

39      Meyer, J. C. (2000). Humor as a double-edged sword: Four functions of humor in communication. Communication Theory, 10(3), 310–331. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2000.tb00194.x.

40      Morreall, J. (1983). Taking laughter seriously. Albany: State University of New York Press.

41      Morreall, J. (1987). A new theory of laughter. In J. Morreall (Ed.), The philosophy of laughter and humor.

42      Munoz, B. J. (2005). Learning through humor: using humorous resources in the teaching of foreign languages. The A.T.I.S Bulletin. 42-46pp.

43      Norrick, Neal. 1993. Conversational joking: humor in everyday talk. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

44      Majeed,R.M.(2013) Apragmatic Analysis of Humor in Some Selected  English  Texts. Unpublished M.A thesis. University of Sulamani. Faculty of humanities and languages.      

45      Score, Pak M(2005) Understanging Items Analysis Reports OEA. University of Washington , Seattle.www.adobe .com products/acrobat read step 2.Htm.Retivied on 9/12/2018 

46      ŠEĎOVÁ, Klára. Pedagogické efekty humoru ve výukové komunikaci. Pedagogika, Praha: Pedagogická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, 2012, roč. 62, č. 4, s. 426-441. ISSN 0031-3815.

47      Urszula Michalik and Iwona Sznicer (2017)The Use of Humor in the Multicultural

48      Working Environment Institute of English, University of Silesia, Ul. Gen. Stefana Grota-Roweckiego 5, 41-205 Sosnowiec, Poland.

49      Wickberg, D., 1998. The senses of humor: Self and laughter in modern America thacaI:Cornell university press

50      Xiaosu. Y . (2009) Conversational Implicature Analysis of Humor in American Situation Comedy “Friends”. University Gent

51      ( https://www.write-out-loud.com/types-of-verbal-humor.html )