جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ر

Department of Psychology, College of Education, University of Garmian

پوخته‌

General Health Questionnaire has been used for screening of mental health in many countries but, the valid and reliable Kurdish version of this questionnaire is not available. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Kurdish GHQ-28. The sample consists of 156 students selected by multistage cluster sampling among the students of Garmian University in 2018-19 academic years. First, the GHQ successfully translated into Kurdish and back translated into English by independent professional bilingual translators. After investigating and approving the validity and reliability of this version in a small group of 50 students from the research population, the final version was prepared for data collection. The result of investigating reliability using the test-retest (0.88), split-half (0.89) and Cronbach’s alpha (0.82), showed that the K-GHQ has adequate reliability.The validity was evaluated using the concurrent reliability of K-GHQ and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results showed that the correlation coefficient was significant (r=0.77, p<0.01). Also, the correlations between the global score with subscales of K-GHQ were all statistically significant (r=0.51-0.88, p < 0.01). It was concluded that the Kurdish version of General Health Questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for screening mental Health in Kurdish communities.

  1. Assadi, SM., Nakhaei, MR., Najafi, F., Fazel, S. (2007). Mental health in three generations of Iranian medical students and doctors. cross-sectional study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 42:57-60
  2. Banles MH. (1983)Validation of General Health Questionnaire in  a young sample. Psychology Medicine; 13(2):349-353
  3. Daradkeh, T.K., Ghubash, R., el-Rufaie, OE. (2001). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Arabic version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Psychol Rep. 89(1):85-94.
  4. Downing, S.M. (2004). Reliability: on the  reproducibility of assessment data. Medical  Education. 38(9): 1006-1012.
  5. Endsleya, P., Weobong, B., Nadkarn, A., (2017). The psychometric properties of GHQ for detecting common mental disorder among community dwelling men in Goa, India. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 28:106-110
  6. Gibbons, P., de Arévalo, H.F., and Mónico, M. (2017). Assessment of the factor structure and reliability of the 28 item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in El Salvador. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology. 4(2): 389-398
  7. Goldberg, D.P., & Hillier, V. F. (1979). A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire, Psychological Medicine, (9): 139-145.
  8. Goldberg, D.P., Williams, P. (1988). The User Guide to psychiatric care. London: Tavistock.
  9. Indrayan, A., Satyanarayana, L. (2006). Biostatistics for medical, nursing and pharmacy students. New Delhi; Prentice-Hall of India.
  10. Jackson C. (2007). The General Health Questionnaire. Occupational Medicine. 57: 59.
  11. Jackson, C. (2007). The General Health Questionnaire. Occupational Medicine. 57(1): 59.
  12. Kashyap, G.C., Singh, S.K. (2017). Reliability and validity of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) for male tannery workers: a study carried out in Kanpur, India. BMC Psychiatry.17(1):102.
  13. Keshavarz-Akhlaqi, AA., Ghalebandi, MF. (2009). Sleep Quality and Its Correlation with General Health of Pre-University Students of Karaj, Iran. Iran J Psychiatry Behave Sci. 3(1): 44-49.
  14. Kim, Y.J., Cho, M.J., Park, S.  & et al. (2013). The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire as an Effective Mental Health Screening Tool for General Korean Adult Population. Psychiatry Investig. (10):352-358.
  15. Manzar, M.D., Moiz, J.A., Zannat, W., Spence, D.W., (2015). Pandi-Perumal SR, BaHammam AS, et al. Validity of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index in Indian university students. Oman medical journal. 30(3):193.
  16. Montazeri, A., Harrichi, A.M., Shariati, M., Garmaroudi, G., Ebadi, M., Fateh, A. (2003). The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): translation and validation study of the Iranian version. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 1 (66): 1-4.
  17. Namjooa, Sh., Shagaghia , A.,  Sarbakshb, P., Allahverdipourc, H.,  and Pakpourd, A.H. (2016). Psychometric properties of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to be applied for the Iranian elder population. Aging & Mental Health. DOI:10.1080/13607863.2016.1196337
  18. Nazifi, M., Mokarami, H., Akbaritabar, A.,  Faraji Kujerdi, M., Tabrizi, R., Rahi, A.  (2013). Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of the Persian Translation of General Health Questionnire (GHQ-28) in Hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Science. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences. 3(4): 336-342.
  19. Salama-Younes,  M., Montazeri, A., Ismaïl, A.,  & Roncin, Ch. (2009). Factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS), and the relationship between them: a study from France. Health Qual Life Outcomes. (7): 22, 1-6.
  20. Sterling, M. (2011). General Health Questionnaire – 28 (GHQ-28). Journal of psychotherapy. 57(4): 259
  21. Taghavi, M. (2001). Assessment of the Validity and Reliability of  the General Health Questionnaire.  J Psychology. 5(3): 381-398.
  22. Yusoff, M.S.B. (2010). The  validity of two Malay version of the General Health Questionare (GHQ) in detecting disress in medical students. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry.11(2):135-142
  23. Zulkefly, N.Sh. (2010). Using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to assess the Psychological Health of Malaysian College Students. Global Journal of Health Science. 2(1):73-80.