جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ر

Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Garmian, Kalar, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

پوخته‌

Mice (Mus musculus), mammalian rodent animals belonging to the order Rodentia, family Muridae, represent one group of the most important reservoir hosts for human pathogens. In this study, a total of 127 mice were necropsied for intestinal cestode infections. Ten of them were conventionally maintained laboratory mice and the remaining 117 were house mice and collected between July 2009 and October 2016 in numerous storages of hay, rice, cereals, flour, as well as in houses from different regions of Kalar district. Six out of 10 laboratory mice were found infected with Hymenolepis nana, family Hymenolepididae, with the prevalence rate of 60%. Non-significant differences were found between both sexes. On the other hand, only one house mouse was found infected with H. nana with infection rate of 0.85%. In addition to this cestode, house mice were found infected with two unidentified cestodes from the family Cataenotaenidae, with the overall infection rate of 12.82% (15 out of 117 house mice). The overall prevalence rates of infections were 7.46% and 20% in male and female house mice; respectively. Significant differences were observed between overall prevalence of Cataenotaenidae species in infected male and female house mice. In addition, the results of this study showed that there were significant differences (P<0.01) between overall infection of laboratory and house mice regarding cestode infections.
To sum up, laboratory mice were found infected with intestinal cestodes of public health concern and these might contaminate the environment, infect other animals and humans in the laboratory, and affect the accuracy of the experimental results. Therefore, an appropriate management and control of diseases in these animals, prior to the experiment, must be considered. Other cestodes were also identified belonging to the family Cataenotaenidae but it was not possible to identify them at species level due to lack of a proper morphological guide. Further study will be required to identify these parasites at species level using molecular methods.

وشه‌ بنچینه‌ییه‌كان

1. Ahmad MS, Maqbool A, Anjum A, Ahmad N, Khan M-u-R, Sultana R, Ali M (2014). Occurance of Hymenolepis Diminuta in rats and mice captured from urban localities of Lahore, Pakistan The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 24(2):392-396
2. Ahmed RK, Koyee QMK, Rahemo ZIF (2012). Intestinal Parasites of Experimental Rodents with Testing the Efficacy of Diagnostic Methods Int Res J of Pharmaceuticals 02(3):77-81
3. Al-Daoody AAK, Younes MR, Ali WR, Hamad KM (2017). Prevalence of Hymenolepis nana in Erbil City - North of Iraq International Journal of Research Studies in Science, Engineering and Technology 4(11):16-21
4. AL-Khafaji Y, AL-Jiboury H (2013). Detection of Rotavirus in diarrhea stool samples of children with acute gastroenteritis in Babylon governorate, Iraq Intern Res Journ Microb 4(3):84-88
5. Al-Kubaisy W, Al-Talib H, Al-khateeb A, Shanshal M (2014). Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq Trop Biomed 31(3):499-506
6. Al-Marsome HT (2012). Prevalence of Hymenolepis nana Infections in Abu-Ghraib City /Baghdad/Iraq The Iraqi postgraduate medical journal 11(4):581-584
7. Al-Morshidy K (2007). Prevalence of intestinal pathogenic parasites infections in Hilla city,
Babylon province, Iraq J Babylon Univ Pur Appl Sci 14(1):179-185
8. Bajalan MM (2010). Epidemiological study of Hymenolepis nana in children in Kalar city / Sulaimani province Diyala Journal For Pure Science 6(4):272-286
9. Baker DG (2008). Flynn's parasites of laboratory animals. Second edition edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA
10. Bonthius DJ (2012). Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: An under-recognized cause of neurologic disease in the fetus, child, and adult Seminars in pediatric neurology 19(3):89-95 doi:10.1016/j.spen.2012.02.002
11. BOT (2015). Garmian Administration: General Board of Tourism of Kurdistan-Iraq. http://bot.gov.krd/garmian-administration/kalar. Accessed 26/10/2018
12. CDC (2018). DPDx - Laboratory Identification of Parasites of Public Health Concern. USA. https://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/index.html. Accessed 15/10/2018
13. Chou C-W, Lee P-F, Lu K-H, Yu H-T (1998). A Population Study of House Mice (Mus musculus castaneus) Inhabiting Rice Granaries in Taiwan Zoological studies 37(3):201-212
14. Craig P, Ito A (2007). Intestinal cestodes Curr Opin Infect Dis 20(5):524-532 doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e3282ef579e
15. Drury RAB, Wallington EA (1976). Carleton's histological technique. Oxford University Press, London
16. Engels G, Hierweger AM, Hoffmann J, Thieme R, Thiele S, Bertram S, Dreier C, Resa-Infante P, Jacobsen H, Thiele K, Alawi M, Indenbirken D, Grundhoff A, Siebels S, Fischer N, Stojanovska V, Muzzio D, Jensen F, Karimi K, Mittrücker H-W, Arck PC, Gabriel G (2017). Pregnancy-Related Immune Adaptation Promotes the Emergence of Highly Virulent H1N1 Influenza Virus Strains in Allogenically Pregnant Mice Cell Host & Microbe 21(3):321-333 doi:10.1016/j.chom.2017.02.020
17. Fan PC (2005). Infectivity and development of the human strain of Hymenolepis nana in ICR mice Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36(1):97-102
18. Feng A, Himsworth C (2013). The secret life of the city rat: A review of the ecology of urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) vol 17. doi:10.1007/s11252-013-0305-4
19. Gomes-Solecki M, Santecchia I, Werts C (2017). Animal Models of Leptospirosis: Of Mice and Hamsters Frontiers in immunology 8(58 doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.00058
20. Hasson RH (2010). Zoonotic & Nonzoonotic Endoparasites of Rodents from Some Districts in Baghdad Diyala Journal For Pure Science 6(3):102-112
21. Haukisalmi V, Ribas A, Junker K, Spickett A, Matthee S, Henttonen H, Jrijer J, Halajian A, Anders JL, Nakao M (2018). Molecular systematics and evolutionary history of catenotaeniid cestodes (Cyclophyllidea) Zoologica Scripta 47(2):221-230 doi:doi:10.1111/zsc.12272
22. John DT, Petri WA, Markell EK, Voge M, Markell EK (2006). Markell and Voge's medical parasitology. Ninth edition edn. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Mo.
23. Karim AJ, Al-Salihi KA (2014). Diagnostic Study on accidental Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in Laboratory Rats in Iraq MRVSA 3(3):33-40 doi:10.22428/mrvsa. 2307-8073.2014. 00334.x
24. Levy BS, Sidel VW (2013). Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War The Lancet 381(9870):949-958 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60254-8
25. Marangi M, Zechini B, Fileti A, Quaranta G, Aceti A (2003). Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a Child Living in the Urban Area of Rome, Italy Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41(8):3994-3995 doi:10.1128/jcm.41.8.3994-3995.2003
26. Ngongeh L, Onyenwe IW, Oche DA, Musongong G, Fakae b, uiversity of nigeria n (2011). prevalence of cestode infections in albino mice and ratst eastern: a public health threat vol 3.
27. Olson PD, Yoder K, Fajardo LGL, Marty AM, van de Pas S, Olivier C, Relman DA (2003). Lethal invasive cestodiasis in immunosuppressed patients J Infect Dis 187(12):1962-1966 doi:10.1086/375357
28. Owen D (1976). Cestodes in laboratory mice: isolation of cataenotaenia pusilla Laboratory animals 10(1):59-64
29. Panti-May JA, RRC DEA, Gurubel-Gonzalez Y, Palomo-Arjona E, Soda-Tamayo L, Meza-Sulu J, Ramirez-Sierra M, Dumonteil E, Vidal-Martinez VM, Machain-Williams C, D DEO, Reis MG, Torres-Castro MA, Robles MR, Hernandez-Betancourt SF, Costa F (2017). A survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by house mouse and black rat populations in Yucatan, Mexico Epidemiology and infection 145(11):2287-2295 doi:10.1017/s0950268817001352
30. Pinto RM, Vicente JJ, Noronha D, Goncalves L, Gomes DC (1994). Helminth parasites of conventionally maintained laboratory mice Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 89(1):33-40
31. Rahdar M, Sadat Roointan E, Vazirianzadeh B, Alborzi A (2017). Study of Internal Parasites of Rodents in Ahvaz, South-West of Iran Jundishapur J Health Sci 9(1):e29067 doi:10.17795/jjhs-29067
32. RCoreTeam (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. URL http://www.R-project.org/.
33. Selstad Utaaker K, Robertson LJ (2015). Climate change and foodborne transmission of parasites: A consideration of possible interactions and impacts for selected parasites Food Research International 68 (16-23). doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.06.051
34. Sharma D, Joshi S, Vatsya S, Yadav CL (2013). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in rodents of Tarai region of Uttarakhand Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology 37(2):181-184 doi:10.1007/s12639-012-0158-4
35. Taher JH (2017). Epidemiological Study of dwarf tapeworm Hymenolepis nana in Najaf province / Iraq Al-Kufa Uni versity Journal for Biology 9(2):87-91
36. Webster JP (2007). The effect of Toxoplasma gondii on animal behavior: Playing cat and mouse Schizophrenia Bulletin33(3):752-756. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl073