جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ران

1 History department, University of Raparin, Kurdistan region, Iraq

2 Universityof Salahaddin. Erbil, Kurdistan Region Iraq

پوخته‌

Sports and national identity are extensively known to have a considerable relationship with each other. The link between Sports, nationalism and national identity is one of the most questionable cases in the modern world. Many scholars have discussed the usage of sports, as a tool for increasing national feelings, nation building, growth of the nation state or assisting cultural power. This essay is an effort of additional consideration on how they run on parallel routes and their impact on each other. According to Jeremy MacLean, sports can be used as an identity tool, giving people a feel of difference and a way to categorize themselves amongst other nation1. On the other hand, in the present time, it is claimed that the relationship between sports and national identity after the post war period has not been steady, especially in the early 1960s. For instance, there has been an increase in maintaining the culture and ethnic variety amongst the population of England, along with other  growing nations, which have been influenced less by sports and have varied identities through their literature and music. Thus, it is clear that in the present time, the connection between sports and national individuality has decreased. However, during the late nineteenth century and until the mid-1990s, the two played a significant role among nations. The aim of this essay is to evaluate the most important aspects in the relationship between sports and national identity, which have been discussed by many sport historians and contemporary scholars. Moreover, it shows some considerable examples at each point, as well as scrutinize the usage of sports to serve national identity and how nations have succeeded to enhance their identity by utilizing sports. This work consists of four key points. First of all, the essay talks about the different rules and factors in the relationship between sports and national identity in different nations along with some examples. Secondly, it discusses how nations can use sports as a tool for nation building, also describing the higher level of identity felling of a nation, in the sport events, which causes violence and racist thinking. Finally, the importance of sports in the demonstration of culture, language, symbolism and national signs at the time of inauguration of sport occasions has been discussed. Further, the assessment of how national deterioration can further develop in various sport occasions and events has been done, along with the importance of mass media in the rising national felling in sport events.
 

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