جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ران

1 College of Education for Pure Science, University of Diyala, Iraq

2 King's College London, London, UK

پوخته‌

Scabies is a contagious skin infection, caused by Sarcoptes scabiei. It is one of a
neglected parasitic disease. It causes complications that lead to inflammatory and
allergic immune response. This study was designed to obtain the role of some
cytokines in scabies patients and compare their levels with dermal diseases patients
and control (healthy).
The study included one hundred and three patients infected with scabies, seven
dermal disease patients (positive controls) as well as 34 healthy individual as control
group. The blood samples were collected from scabies and dermal disease patients as
well as the control groups. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used
to measure Interleukine-4 (IL-4), Interleukin -8 (IL-8), Interleukin-17A (IL-17A),
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Monocyte Chemotactic
Protein-1 (MCP-1) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1-α (MIP-1- α) in the
serum of scabies patients, dermal disease patients and healthy individuals.
The results showed that IL-4, IL-8, IL-17A and TNF- α was higher in scabies
patients than in other groups (positive control and healthy), with no significant
differences. While both of MIP- α and MCP-1 were higher in scabies patients
compared with healthy group, with significant differences. MIP- α was higher in
dermal patients individuals than in scabies patients. TNF- α was lower in scabies
patients than in healthy group but higher than in dermal disease patient group. There
was positive correlation between IL-17A and each of IL-8, TNF- α, MCP-1 and
between IL-8 and both of IL-17A and MCP-1, while there was negative correlation
between MIP-1- α and both of IL-4 and MCP-1. The results suggested that the
scabies infection may induce the systemic and inflammatory immune response.

وشه‌ بنچینه‌ییه‌كان

-Abd El-Aal, A.A.; Hassan, M. A.; Gawdat; M.I.; Ali, M.A. & Barakat, M. (2016).
Immunomodulatory impression of anti and pro- inflammatory cytokines
relation to humeral immunity in human scabies. International Journal of
Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 29(2): 188-194.
-Amer, M.; Mostafa, F.F.; Nasr, A.N.; and el-Harras, M. (1995). The role of mast cells
in treatment of scabies. International Journal of Dermatology, 34(3):186–9.
-Al-Musawi, M.A.A. (2014). Evaluation of immune response in scabietic patients in
Najaf Governorate. PH. D. Thesis, Kufa University, College of Science,
Department of Biology: 102P.
-Al-Musawi, M.M.; Hasan, H.R. and Maluk, A.H,(2014). Relationship between Th1,
Th2 immune response and serum SOD activity in scabies. Journal of Advanced
Biomedical and Pathobiology Research, 4(1):1-15.
-Al-Saadi; K.H.R, (2014).Cytokines measurements IL-10, IL-17A, IL-4, MIP-1-α
among individuals infected with leishmaniasis, M.Sc., College of Education
For Pure Sciences, University of Diyala, 200p.
-Arican, O.; Arai, M., Sasmaz ; S. Ciragil, p.(2005). Serum levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ,
IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17 and IL18 in patients with active psoriasis and
correlation with disease severity. Mediators of Inflammation, 2005(5):273-279.
-Arlian, L.G. (1989). Biology, host relation and epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei.
Annual Review of Entomology, 34(1): 139-161.

-Arlian, L.G.; Fall, N. & Morgan, M.S. (2007). In vivo evidence that Sarcoptes scabiei
(Acari: Sarcoptidae) is the source of molecule, that modulate splenic gene
expression. Journal of Medical Entomology. 44(6):1054-1063.
-Arlian, L.G.; Morgan, M.S. and Neal, J.S. (2004). Extracts of scabies mites
(Sarcoptidae: Sarcoptes scabiei) modulate cytokine expression by human
peripheral blood mononuclear cells and dendritic cells. Journal of Medical
Entomology. 41 (1):69-73.
-Arlian, L.G.; Morgan, M.S & Paul, C.C. (2006). Evidence that scabies mites (Acari,
sarcoptidae) influence production of interleukine-10 and function of T-
regulatory cells (Trl) in humans. Journal of Medical Entomology, 23(2): 283-
287.
-Arlian, L.G.; Morgan, M.S.& Neal, J.S. (2003). Modulation of cytokines expression
in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts by extract scabies mites. The American
Journal of tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 69(6):652-656.
-Bhat, S.A.; Mounsey, K.E.; Liu, X. & Walton, S. F. (2017). Host immune responses
to the itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, in humans. Parasites and Vectors,10(1):
10:385 DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2320-4
-Coondoo, A. (2012). The role of cytokines in the pathomechanism of cutaneous
disorder. Indian Journal of Dermatology, 57(2):90-96.
-Downs, A.M.; Harvey, I. & Kennedy, C.T. (1999). The epidemiology of head lice and
scabies in UK. Epidemiology and Infection, 122(3):471-477.
-Hua, Z., Feil, H. & Mingming, X. (2006). Evaluation and interferon of serum and skin
lesion levels leukotrienes in patients with eczema. Prostaglandins leukotrienes
and Essential Fatty Acids, 75(1): 51-55.
-Huard, C.; Gulla, S.V.; Bennett, D.V.; Coyle, A.J.; Velugels, R.A & Greenberg, S.A.
(2017). Correlation of cutaneous disease activity with type interferon gene

signature and interferon-β in dermatomysil. British Journal of Dermatology,
175(5): 1224-1230.
-Ito. Y.; Satoh, T.; Takayama, K.; Miyagishi, C.; Walls, A.F. and Yokozeki, H. (2011).
Basophil recruitment and activation in inflammatory skin diseases. Allergy,
66(8):1107–13
-Jin, W. and Dong, C.(2013). IL-17 cytokines in immunity and
inflammation.Emerging Microbes and Infections, 2(9): e60.
-Jordan, E.L. & Verma, S. P. (2014). Invertebrate zoology. Chand Company Ltd, New
Delhi: 1127p.
-Karthikeyan, K & Ragunatha, S. (2011). Update on scabies and pediculosis in
children, In : Inamadar, A.C. and Palit, A. (Edrs.) Advance in pediatric
dermatology. Jawan Brothers Medical publisher (p) Ltd, New Delhi, India:
111-120p.
-Kobets, T.; Havelkova, H.; Grekov, L. Volkova, V.; Vojtiskova, J.; Svobodova, M.;
Demank, P. & Lipoldova , M. (2012). Genetic of host response to Leishmania
tropica in mice different control to skin pathology, chemokine reaction and
invasion in spleen and liver. POLS Neglected Tropical Disease, 6(6): e1667-
e1679.
-Levi- Schaffer, F.; Temkin, V.; Malamud, V.; Feld, S & Ziberman, y. (1998). Mast
cells enhance eosinophil survival in vitro: role of TNF- α and granulocyte-
macrophage colony stimulating factor. Journal of Immunology,
160(11)5:5554-5562.
-Liu, X.; Walton, S.F.; Murrany, H.C.; king, M. Kelly, A.; Holt, D.C.; Currie , B.J.;
Mccarthy, J.S.& Mounsey, K. E.(2014). Crusted scabies in associated with
IL17 secretion by skin T cell. Parasite Immunology, 36(11): 594-604.

-Martin JC, Baeten DL, Josien R (2014) Emerging role of IL-17 and Th17 cells in
systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol 154: 1–12. pmid:24858580
-Morgan, M.S. & Arlian, L.G. (2010). Response of human skin equivalent to Sarcoptes
scabiei. Journal of Medical Entomology, 47 (5): 877-883.
-Morgan, M.S.; Arlian, L.G & Markey, M.P. (2013). Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate
gene expression in human skin equivalents. PLOS ONE, 8(8): e71143, doi:
10.137/Journal pone.0071143.
-Morsy, T.A.;el Alfy, M.S.; Arafa, M.A.; Salama, M.M & Habib, K.S. (1995). Serum
levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) versus immunoglobulin (IgG, Ig
Mand IgE) in Egyptian scabitic children. Journal of Egyption Society
Parasitology, 25(3):773-788.
-Mounsey , K.E.; Murray, H.C.; Belefeld- Ohmann, H.; Pasay, C., Holt, D.C.; Currie,
B.J.; Walton, S.F. & Mccarthy, J.S. (2015) prospective study in a porcine
model of Sarcoptes scabiei indicates the association of Th2 and Th1 pathways
with the clinical severity of scabies. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Journal, 498: 1-17.
-Mullins, J.S.; Arlian, L. G. & Morgan; M.S. (2009). Extracts of Sarcoptes scabiei
down modulate secretion of IL-8 by skin keratinocytes and fibroblast in the
presence of proinflammatory cytokines. Journal of Medical Entomology, 46(4):
845-851.
-Nimmervoll, H.; Hoby, S.; Robert, N.; Lommano, E.; Welle, M. and Ryser-Degiorgis,
M. P. (2013). Pathology of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes):
macroscopic and histologic characterization of three disease stages. Journal of
Wildlife Disease, 49(1):91–102.
-Pence, DB & Veekermann,E. (2002). Sarcoptic manage in wild life. Revue
Scienifique et Technique deLOIE.,33(2):413-420

-Portugal, M.; Barak, V.: Ginsburg. I. & Kohen, R. (2007). Interplay among oxidants,
ant: oxidants, and cytokines in skin disorders: present status and future
considerations. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 61(7):412-422.
-Poulat, A . & Nasirian, H. (2007). Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in prisoners
of Bander Abbas, Hormozgan province, Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological
Sciences, 10(21): 3967-3969.
-Routh, H.B. Mirensky, Y, M.; Parish, C.C. & Witkows, J.A. (1994). Ectoparasites as
sexually transmitted diseases. Seminar Dermatology, 13(4):243-244.
-Smets, K. and vercruysse, J. (2000). Evaluation of different methods for the diagnosis
of scabies in swine. Veterinary parasitology, 90(2):137-145.
-Toet, H. M.; Fischer, K.; Mounsey, K. E.; Sandeman, R. M., Autoantibodies to iron-
binding proteins in pigs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei, Veterinary
Parasitology (2014),http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.07.012
-Walton, S.F.; Holt, D.C.; Currie, B.J. & Kemp, D.J. (2004). Scabies: new future for
neglected disease. Advances in Parasitology, 57: 309-317.
-Walton, S.F.; Pizzuto, S.: Slender, A.: Viberg, L.; Holt, D..' Hales, B.J.; kemp, D.J.,
currie, B.J; Rolland, J.M & O'Hehir, R.(2010). Increased allergic immune
response to Sarcoptes scabiei antigens in crusted versus ordinary scabies.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 17(9): 1428-1438.
-White, J.J. (2009). The veron community scabies education and eradication program.
Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Virginia polytechnic institute and state university:
102p.
-Word health organization. (2005). Epidemiology and management of common skin
diseases in children in developing countries. Geneva: World Health
Organization, Depart men of Child and Adolescent Health and Development.
WHO/FCH/CAH/05-12:62p.

-Zamorano, J.: Rivas, M.D.& Perez, M. (2003). Interlukine-4: a multi- functional
cytokine. Immunologia, 22(2):215-224.