جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ر

Lecturer, Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Garmian

پوخته‌

Geomorphology is an important aspect for urban planning, which gives an
idea about the variations in landscape/landform and indirectly facilitates in
evaluating the resources of an area. In the present paper, an attempt has been
made to study the geomorphic implications on urban expansion of Darbandikhan
district. The study area is in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. It covers an area about
(546.02 km2
) with nearly (150 km) perimeter. For detailed study, multi-temporal
satellite imageries of Landsat 3, 5, 7, 8 and QuickBird were used with the aid of
ArcGIS-10.2.2 and Global Mapper 13 software to compile and create database
that provided a visual and historical perspective of the urban expansion and
practiced in the study area for the past 46 years from 1971 to 2017. Progressive
urban mapping in correlation with different thematic maps of lithology,
geomorphologic units (landforms), drainage density, elevation, slope gradient
and slope aspect delivers the baseline information for the planner and decision
makers to observer/monitor and predict the patterns and future trends of
urbanization. The rate of urban growth of Darbandikhan town is 1.2 km2
/decade
and at 2028 the total suitable potential area, at west of the town, will be
consumed and change to townscape if the town expansion growth rate continued
in its behavior. Hence geomorphological maps along with other thematic maps
are predictive techniques to better future forecast of urban growth that can
delineate suitable area for urban development and planning of the Darbandikhan
town within the district’s administrative boundary.

وشه‌ بنچینه‌ییه‌كان

Adeli Z. and Khorshiddoust A., 2011, Application of Geomorphology in Urban
Planning: Case study in landfill site selection, Elsevier publ., Procedia Social and
Behavioral Sciences Jour., Vol. 19, p 662–667
Allan J. D. and Castillo M. M, 2007, Stream Ecology (Structure and function of
running waters), 2nd Edition, Springer, Netherlands, 444p Springer
Allen P. A. and Allen J. R., 2005, Basin Analysis (Principles and Applications), 2nd
Ed., Blackwell, Oxford, 562p
Anab R., 2006, Evaluation the risk of erosion in Timgad basin and its impact on
Koudiet M'douar Dam – Multi-criterion approaches, unpublished M.Sc. thesis,
Department of Geology – College of Science, University of Aqeed Alhaj Lkhdhir
– Algeria Republic
Bartl N., Grasemann B., Faber R. and D. Lockhart, 2009, Tectonic geomorphology of
the Safeen Anticline (Northern Iraq), Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 11,
EGU2009-7626, EGU General Assembly.
Bathrellos G. D., Gaki-Papanastassiou K., Skilodimou H. D., Papanastassiou D.,
Chousianitis K. G., 2012, Potential suitability for urban planning and industry
development using natural hazard maps and geological–geomorphological
parameters, Springer Publ., Environ Earth Sci. Vol. 66, p 537–548
Bathrellos G.D., Kalivas D.P., Skilodimou H.D., 2009, GIS-based landslide
susceptibility mapping models applied to natural and urban planning in Trikala,
Central Greece. Estud Geol, Vol. 65, No. 1, p 49–65
Bell F. G., 2007, Engineering Geology, 2nd Edition, Elsevier Ltd., AMSTERDAM,
BOSTON, 593 p.
Bellen R. C., Dunnington H. V., Wetzel R., and Morton D., 1959, Lexique
Stratigraphique International, Asie, Iraq, Vol. 3C, 10a, 333p.
Berberian M. and King G. C. P., 1981, Towards a paleogeography and tectonic
evolution of Iran, Can Jour. Earth Sci., No. 18, P210–265.
Blyth F. G. H. and de Freitas M. H., 2005, A Geology for Engineers, Elsevier, London,
365p
Bridge J. and Demicco R., 2008, Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment
Deposits, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York,
Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, 835p.
Buday T., 1980, Regional Geology of Iraq, Vol. 1, Stratigraphy, I.I. Kassab and S.Z.
Jassim (Eds) D. G. Geo Survey Min. Invest. Publication, 445p.
Burrough P.A., van Gaans P. F. M., MacMillan R.A., 2000, High Resolution Landform
Classification Using Fuzzy-k Means, Fuzzy Sets and Systems Vol.113, p37-52.
Cerreta M. and DeToro P., 2012, Urbanization suitability maps: a dynamic spatial
decision support system for sustainable land use, Springer, Earth Syst. Dynam.
Jour.,Vol. 3, p157–171
Cooke, R.U., 1984, Geomorphological Hazards in Los Angeles, London: George Allen
and Unwin.
Dalrymple, J. B., Blong, R. J. and Conacher, A. J., 1968, A Hypothetical Nine Unit
Land Surface Model. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 12, 60–76
DeVera J., Gines J., Oehlers M., McClay K. and Doski J., 2009, Structure of the
Zagros fold and thrust belt in the Kurdistan Region-northern Iraq, jour. of
Trabajos de Geología, Universidad de Oviedo, Vol. 29, P 213-217
Fakhari M. D., Axen G. J., Horton B. K., Hassanzadeh J., Amini A., 2008, Revised age
of proximal deposits in the Zagros foreland basin and implications for Cenozoic
evolution of the High Zagros, Elsevier B.V., Tectonophysics, Tectonophysics,
doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.11.064
Fookes P. G., Lee E. M. and Griffiths J. S., 2007, Engineering Geomorphology Theory
and Practice, Whittles Publishing, Scotland, 293p
Gabler R. E., Petersen J. F., Trapasso L. M., 2007, Essentials of Physical Geography,
Eighth Edition, Thomson Brooks, UK, 685p
Goudie A.S.(editor), 2004, Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, Routledge Ltd, Vol. 2
Gutiérrez F. and Gutiérrez M., 2016, Landforms of the Earth (An Illustrated Guide),
Springer, Switzerland, 270p
Horton, R. E., 1945, Erosional Development of Streams and Their Drainage Basins
Hydrophysical Approach to Quantitative Morphology, Geological Society of
America Bulletin, No. 56: 275–370.
Howard A. D, 1997, Badland Morphology and Evolution: Interpretation Using a
Simulation Model, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Earth Surface Processes and
Landforms and , Vol. 22, 211–227
Huggett R., 2007, Fundamentals of Geomorphology, 2nd edn, Routledge, London,
483p
Huggett R., 2010, Physical Geography, First publication, Routledge, London and New
York, 225p
Jassim, S. Z, and Goff, J. C., 2006, Geology of Iraq, First edition, Dolin, Prague and
Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic, 341p.
Macka Z., 2001, Determination of texture of topography from large scale contour
maps, Geografski Vestnik, Vol. 73, NO. 2, p53–62
McCall, G.J.H., De Mulder, E.F.J. and Marker, B.R. (eds), 1996, Urban Geoscience,
Rotterdam: Balkema.
McCuen R. H., 1998, Hydrologic Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall Inc,
New Jersey, 833p
Mengler F.C., 2008, Gully Erosion on Rehabilitated Bauxite Mine, Unpublished M.Sc.
Thesis, University of Western Australia,
Mohapatra S. N., Pani P. and Sharma M., 2014, Rapid Urban Expansion and Its

Implications on Geomorphology: A Remote Sensing and GIS Based Study,
Hindawi, Geography Jour., Vol. 2014, Article ID 361459, 10p
Numan, N.M.S., 2002, Tectonic investigations in northern Iraq (Report), FAO North
Documentation Fund. Erbil (unpublished).
Panda S. K., Sukumar B., 2010, Delineation of Areas for Water Conservation in
Peruvamba River basin, Kannur district, Kerala, Using Remote Sensing and GIS,
International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Vol. 1, No. 1, 8p
Panizza M., 1996, Environental geomorphology –Elsevier Science B.V. Publication,
Developments in earth surface, vol. 4, 268 p
Pavlopoulos K., Evelpidou N. and Vassilopoulos A., 2009, Mapping
Geomorphological Environments, Springer, London, 236
Raghunath H.M., 2006, Hydrology (Principles, Analysis Design), 2nd Edition, New
Age International (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 477p.
Rao K., 2005, Multi-Criteria Spatial Decision Analysis for Forecasting Urban Water
Requirements: a Case Study of Dehradun City, India, Landsc Urban Plan Jour.,
Vol 7, p163–174
Salar S. G., 2013, Geomorphic analysis for Water Harvesting Using GIS Technique in
Selected Basins-Garmiyan-Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Sulaimaniyah Univ.,
Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 249p
Shankar M. N. R. and Mohan G., 2005, A GIS Based Hydrogeomorphic Approach for
Identification of Site Specific Artificial Recharge Techniques In the Deccan
Volcanic Province, Journal of Earth Syst. Sci., Vol. 114, NO. 5, pp. 505–514
Sissakian, V. K., 1993, Geological Map of Iraq, Sheets No.i-38-7, Scale 1:250000, 1st
edt. GEOSURV, Baghdad, Iraq.
Sissakian, V. K., 2000, Geological Map of Iraq, Sheets No.1, Scale 1:1000000, 3rd edt.
GEOSURV, Baghdad, Iraq.
Stevanovic Z., Iurkiewicz A. and Maran A., 2009, New Insights Into Karst and Caves
of Northwestern Zagros (Northern Iraq), Acta Carsologica, Postojna, Vol. 38
No.1, P83-96
Taher S. and Alshaikh A., 1998, Spatial analysis of rainfall in Southwest of Saudi
Arabia using GIS, Nordic Hydrol Jour., Vol. 29, No. 2, p91–104
Tucker G. E. and Bras R. L., 1998, Hillslope processes, drainage density, and
landscape morphology, Water Resource Research, Vol. 34, No. 10, p 2751–2764.
Tucker G. E. and Slingerland R., 1996, Predicting sediment flux from fold and thrust
belts, Jour. of Basin Research, Blackwell Science Ltd 8, 329–349
Wright H. E., 1962, Pleistocene Glaciation in Kurdistan, Eiszeitaller und Gegenwart,
Band 12, p131-164.
Young A., 1972, Slopes, London, Longman.
Youssef A. M., Pradhan B., Hassan A. M., 2011, Flash flood risk estimation along the
St. Katherine road, southern Sinai, Egypt using GIS based morphometry and
satellite imagery, Springer, Environ Earth Sci. Jour., NO. 62, p 611–623
Youssef A. M. & Pradhan B., Sefry S. A. and Abu Abdullah M. M., (2014) Use of
Geological and Geomorphological Parameters in Potential Suitability Assessment
for Urban Planning Development at Wadi Al-Aslabasin, Jeddah, Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia
Zavoianu I., 1985, Morphometry of Drainage Basin, Elsevier, Amsterdam - Oxford -
New York, 251pp.
Ziegler M. A., 2001, Late Permian to Holocene Paleofacies Evolution of the Arabian
Plate and its Hydrocarbon Occurrences, Gulf PetroLink Bahrain, GeoArabia, Vol.
6, No. 3, 60p.