جۆری توێژینه‌وه‌: Original Article

نوسه‌ر

Assistant Lecturer, Chemistry Dept., University of Garmian, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

پوخته‌

Groundwater is regarded as one of the main water sources in a number of
countries in the world to supply cities and urban areas with water for domestic,
agricultural and industrial uses. That is because of lack of surface water and
rainfall quantities. Therefore, the levels and quantities of groundwater should be
observed regularly. The quality of groundwater is mainly influenced by the
effects of anthropogenic sources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality
of groundwater in Kifri district. In this case fifteen groundwater samples were
collected at identical locations from deeper wells in order to investigate their
quality parameters such as: pH, Electric conductivity, total dissolved solids,
concentration of soluble ions and some others. The results of the concentrations
were measured and interpreted with some irrigation indexes such as sodium
percent (SP), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC),
magnesium hazard (MH%), and Kelly’s ratio (KR).
The results reveal that all of groundwater samples have SAR less than
(10); it is indicating water class to be of excellent quality. Also, all the samples
have RSC less than the permissible (1.5). However, it is observed that (6.67 %)
of the samples have MH ratio values greater than (50). Presence of more
magnesium in irrigation water compared to calcium leads to increase the degree
of magnesium saturation thus decrease soil productivity. The results also reveal
that the samples have values of (SP) less than (60%). Overall, it indicates that
the quality of (93.33%) of the samples falling under excellent category for
irrigation purposes.

  1. Alam, M, Rais, S and Aslam, M 2012, "Hydrochemical Investigation and Quality Assessment of Ground Water in Rural Areas of Delhi, India", Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol.(66), pp.(97-110), available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-011-1210-x.
  2. Allan, JD and Castillo, MM 2007, "Stream Ecology, Structure and Function of Running Waters", 2nd edit., Springer, Netherlands, pp.(444).
  3. American Public Health Association (APHA) 1995 “Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater0”, 19th Edition, Washington, D.C, pp.(1467).
  4.  Bauder, TA, Waskom RM, and Davis JG  2015, "Irrigation Water Quality Criteria", Colorado State University, USA.
  5. Biswas SN, Mohabey H, Malik ML 2002, "Assessment Of The Irrigation Water Quality Of River Ganga In Haridwar District", Asian J. Chem, Vol.(16).
  6. Eaton, FM 1950, "Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters", Soil Science, Vol.(69), pp.(123–133).
  7. Güler, C, Thyne, GD, McCray, JE and Turner, AK 2002, "Evaluation of graphical and multivariate statistical methods for classification of water chemistry data", Hydrogeology Jour, Vol. (10), pp.(455 – 474).
  8. Kelly WP 1963, "Use of Saline Irrigation Water". Soil Sci., Vol.(95), Issue (4), pp.(35-39) 
  9. Michael, AM 2008, "Irrigation Theory and Practice",2nd edition, Vikas Publishing House, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  10. Reaffirmed 2009, "Guidelines for the quality of irrigation water", BIS, New Delhi.
  11. Raju, NJ, Ram, P and Dey, S 2009, "Groundwater Quality in the Lower Varuna River Basin, Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh, India". Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. (7), pp.(178-192), available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12040-008-0048-4
  12. Richards LA 1954, "Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils" USDA and IBH Pub, Coy Ltd., New Delhi, India, Agric. Handbook, pp.(98-99).
  13. Saleh A, Al-Ruwaih F, Shehata M 1999, "Hydrogeochemical processes operating within the main aquifers of Kuwait", J Arid Environ, Vol. (42), pp. (195–209).
  14. Siddiqui, A, Naseem, S and Jalil, T 2005, "Groundwater Quality Assessment in and around Kalu Khuhar, Super Highway, Sindh, Pakistan", Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. (5), pp.(1260-1265), available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2005.1260.1265.
  15. Szabolcs, I and Darb, C 1964, “The influence of irrigation water of high sodium carbonate on soils”,Proc. 8th Int. Cong. Of ISSS, Trans. II, pp.(803).
  16. Talukder MSU, Shirazi SM, Paul UK 1998, "Suitability of Groundwater for Irrigation at Kirimganj Upazila Kishoreganj", Progress Agric, Vol. (9), pp.(107-112).
  17. Todd, DK 1980, "Ground Water Hydrology", Wiley, New York, pp. (535).
  18. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Salinity lab.) 1954, "Diagnosis and improvement of saline and Alkali soils", Agriculture and Drainage Lab.Tech, Report, USA.
  19. Vasanthavigar, M, Srinivasamoorthy, K, Vijayaragavan, K, Rajiv Ganthi, R, Chidambaram, S, Anandhan, P, Mani vannan, R and Vasudevan, S 2010, "Application of Water Quality Index for Groundwater Quality Assessment: Thirumanimuttar Sub-Basin, Tamilnadu, India, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment", Vol.(171), pp.(595-609), available at:
  20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1302-1.
  21. Wilcox LV 1955, "Classification and Use of Irrigation Water", Washington: US Department of Agriculture, Circular No.(969), pp. (19).
  22. Wilcox, LV 1948, "Classification and Use of Irrigation Waters", U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington DC, pp.(962).
  23. World Health Organization (WHO), 2004, "Guideline for Drinking Water Quality", 3rd edit., Vol.(1), Geneva, pp. (515).